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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




THE MULTI STORE MODEL OF MEMORY (MSM)




ATKINSON & SHIFFRIN (1968)


Their model proposes that memory consists of three interconnected, unitary stores which are linear
and cannot be bypassed. They're known as the:

Sensory information store (SIS)
Short term memory (STM)
Long term memory…

Page 2

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




Murdock (1962) presented participants with a list of words, one at a time. The participants then
recalled the list in any order (free recall). He counted the frequency with which each word was
recalled and concluded that:
Words at the beginning (primary effect) and…

Page 3

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




Information in the SIS that is paid attention to is passed on to the STM. To achieve this it has to be
recorded from its original form into possibly a word sound (acoustic), meaning (semantic) or image
(visual encoding).

ACOUSTIC CONFUSION IN STM

Conrad…

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




Strengths:
Use of experimentation involving tightly controlled procedures enables researchers to find
causal links between variables
Weakness:
Lack of ecological validity due to the restrictions of what participants are allowed to do.
Results cannot be generalised to other settings

RESEARCH IN TO STM CAPACITY…

Page 5

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




items in the STM (and eventually leads to transfer into the LTM), prevention of such rehearsal for
different lengths of time should enable us to find out when the STM trace disappears.

Peterson and Peterson (1959)

FACTORS AFFECTING STM DURATION

Rehearsal ­ by repeating…

Page 6

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




Capacity 5-9 items 7 +/- 2 items Unknown exactly but
very large
Duration 0.5 ­ 4 seconds Up to 30 seconds Unlimited
without rehearsal
Information Loss Sensory trace decay Decay or Location or retrieval
displacement failure, decay,
distortion



EVALUATION OF THE MSM

Strengths:
Support…

Page 7

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




o Declarative memory stores things that we know. This incorporates both episodic and
semantic memory and can usually be put into words
o Procedural memory involves knowing how to do things such as drive a car but without
necessarily being able to explain how…

Page 8

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




BADDELEY AND HITCH (1974)


They agreed with Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) that we have an STM and LTM but saw the STM as
being much more complex than a single, temporary store for rehearsal and recoding of information
before the transfer to the LTM.…

Page 9

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




THE PHONOLOGICAL LOOP

This can be thought of as a maintenance rehearsal mechanism for retaining (mainly) acoustic, verbal
information. It has a limited capacity and consists of:

The phonological store (the inner ear) which briefly holds acoustically coded information
(speech)
The articulatory control process…

Page 10

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 1 ­ MEMORY




had 3 minutes in each trial to choose the next move. Compared to controls, the articulatory
suppression had little effect but the visual and attention tasks greatly impaired the quality of
the moves chosen. They concluded that their experimental manipulations had caused the
differences…

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