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What's Memory?
·Retention of what we learn or experience.
Encoding: process of
translating info into a
form which it can be used
and then putting that into
our memory.
3 memory processes Storage: process of
retaining info we encoded
Free Recall: we simply
remember info.
Recall: occurs when we Cued Recall: when
access stored info something acts as a trigger
for stored info.
Recognition: when we
identify info previously
learned.…read more

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Models of Memory.
Multi Store Model (Atkinson and Schifrin 1968): Working Memory Model:
According to this all our sensory experiences are 1974 Baddely and Hitch: according to them working
recorded in the sense organs as a brief sensory memory consists of:
memory, most of which is lost when the brief Visuospatial
sensory memory trace fades. Different sensory Scratch pad:
memory's have been identified: The central The phonological Inner eye:
Executive: Loop: Where we can
·Ionic: visual sensory memory image and spatial
The controller: Sound system:
·Echoic: auditory Controls the Responsible for info. Helps us to
operation of the processing sound monitor where we
The model:
other based info. are in relation to
components. other objects as
Sensor O Limited capacity. we move around
Short Long
input y ut our environment.
term Term
memor pu Limited capacity
memory memory
y t`
Rehearsal loop Articulatory loop: Primary Acoustic store:
How much All sensory
Inner voice. Limited Inner ear. limited capacity.
does it experience 7+/-2 unlimited capacity verbal Auditory rehearsal system
hold items rehearsal component. Is which receives sound info
Duration Visual ¼ sec used to prepare speech from the environment. This
how long Auditory 4 18-30 sec unlimited and to think in words. E. store also receives auditory
does it last sec g. mental arithmetic. info from our own internal
Capacity determined by speech via the articulatory
Coding in In form it Mainly
how long it takes us to loop e.g. what we hear in our
what was received phonological Mainly semantic
form is it i.e. sense (auditory or (based on say something not by no'. head.
stored specific sound based) meaning)…read more

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Types of Long term Memory
Semantic: Long term memory Long term memory for
for info about the world/ events which we have
general knowledge/ meaning experienced ourselves or we'
of words. E.g. knowledge the ve heard about. E.g. day out,
grass is green. We rarely linked to time and place.
know when we learnt such Declarative.
things. Declaration.
Difference of the three:
·Each type holds different type of
·Medin et al 2001 suggests
Procedural: episodic and semantic system are
Cohen and Squire 1980. part of the same system
Motor/action based memory. ·Evidence from clinical studies
E.g. how to ride a bike- indicate that declarative memory
difficult to put into words and procedural memory rely on
"knowing how" memory. different encoding systems and
brain structures.…read more


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