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Memory 1: The Multi Store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin)…read more

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SM STM LTM
Capacity Limited capacity 7±2 Limitless
Less than a
Duration About 20 seconds Lifetime
second for images
Echoic
Mainly
Encoding Iconic Mainly acoustically
Semantically
Haptic
The Sensory Memory…read more

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Separates important information from unimportant information. It passes
important info to the STM and it dumps the unimportant information.
2.…read more

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Sperling was the first person to explore the possibility of an SM. He tried to find
evidence that we store an image for a split second before it fades.
He conducted two experiments:
1. He constructed a letter grid made up of 3 rows of four letters. The letters were
consonants so no words could be made by grouping the letters together. In this
respect the grid below is wrong as it contains a vowel. The grid was shown for 50
milliseconds.…read more

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Glanzer and Cunitz
Primary effect: Remembering the first pieces of information in a sequence as they
have been rehearsed in put into the LTM.
Recency effect: Remembering the most recent pieces of information in a sequence
as they are being temporarily stored in the STM.
They said a list of 15 short words to two groups of participants. They then asked one
of the groups to recall the words immediately.…read more

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This demonstrates that the STM can be
displaced.
Criticisms:
It was a lab study and therefore lacks ecological validity.
The information used were short, neutral and concrete words and therefore not
representative of all other words.…read more

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Neuropsychological evidence for distinction between STM and LTM
HM
Young man who suffered severe epilepsy and underwent brain surgery to remove
parts of his temporal lobes and hippocampus.
The operation reduced the epilepsy but resulted in him having severe memory
deficits.…read more

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He could serially recall 6 numbers, this shows that his STM was relatively intact.
However he read the same magazine repeatedly without realising he had read in
before and he wasn't able to recognise psychologists who had spent long periods of
time with him. This suggests his LTM was now defective and he could no longer lay
down new memories, or he couldn't retrieve them.
KF
A young man who sustained injuries after a motorbike accident.
He only had a recency effect of 1 item.…read more

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