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Memory

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Memory 1: The Multi Store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin)

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SM STM LTM

Capacity Limited capacity 7±2 Limitless

Less than a
Duration About 20 seconds Lifetime
second for images

Echoic
Mainly
Encoding Iconic Mainly acoustically
Semantically
Haptic




The Sensory Memory

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1. Separates important information from unimportant information. It passes
important info to the STM and it dumps the unimportant information.
2. It also integrates info to ensure smooth images - rather like an animation


It has three separate stores:
Echoic - hear
Iconic - see
Haptic - touch and feel…

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Sperling was the first person to explore the possibility of an SM. He tried to find
evidence that we store an image for a split second before it fades.
He conducted two experiments:
1. He constructed a letter grid made up of 3 rows of four letters. The letters were…

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Glanzer and Cunitz
Primary effect: Remembering the first pieces of information in a sequence as they
have been rehearsed in put into the LTM.
Recency effect: Remembering the most recent pieces of information in a sequence
as they are being temporarily stored in the STM.
They said a list of…

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had been displaced by the distracter task. This demonstrates that the STM can be
displaced.


Criticisms:
It was a lab study and therefore lacks ecological validity.
The information used were short, neutral and concrete words and therefore not
representative of all other words.

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Neuropsychological evidence for distinction between STM and LTM
HM
Young man who suffered severe epilepsy and underwent brain surgery to remove
parts of his temporal lobes and hippocampus.
The operation reduced the epilepsy but resulted in him having severe memory
deficits. He could recall events from his early life but…

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He could serially recall 6 numbers, this shows that his STM was relatively intact.
However he read the same magazine repeatedly without realising he had read in
before and he wasn't able to recognise psychologists who had spent long periods of
time with him. This suggests his LTM was now…

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