Memory notes- whole topic

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Nina
  • Created on: 21-04-14 16:59
Preview of Memory notes- whole topic

First 284 words of the document:

What is memory?
Information we can recall from the past a process in 3 stages: Encoding (how info is processed to be
held) -> Storage (Holding info in memory system until needed) -> Retrieval (accessing stored info)
Short term memory (STM) and Long term memory (LTM):
3 main factors: Capacity (amount of info held), Duration (length of time info held), Encoding (format
info is held)
Short Term Memory (STM) Long Term Memory (LTM)
Capacity 7+-2 Unlimited
Duration 18-30 seconds Up to a lifetime
Encoding Mainly Acoustic (sound) Mainly Semantic (meaning)
Short Term Memory:
Capacity: Miller used digit span measure, participants held 7+-2 chunks of info irrespective of size.
! Provides clear evidence STM has limited capacity
! It has practical applications as it can improve memory
X Findings have been contradicted- Simon size of chunk has effect, only hold 7 units if one word
Duration: 18-30 seconds, Peterson+Peterson used trigram ha to repeat in correct order, 90% recall
after 3 seconds, 10% after 18 seconds
! Provides clear evidence into duration of STM
! High internal validity because of high control of laboratory experimental method
X Use of trigrams is artificial, lowering external validity
X Research only accounts for one type of memory, ignore smell/visual images, no firm conclusions
Encoding: mainly acoustic, Conrad participants given list of consonants to recall immediately tended
to confuse letters sounding similar e.g. `B' `P'
! Provides clear evidence information stored acoustically in STM
! Good reliability as replicated and supported by large body of research
X Criticised for individual differences so cannot be generalised to wider population

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Long-term Memory-
Capacity- Unlimited, Standing over a week showed 10,000 photos, few days later 90% recognition
! Provides clear evidence that LTM has unlimited capacity
! Supported by subsequent research
X use of photographs and experimental control is artificial, hard to generalise so low external validity
Duration- Up to a lifetime, Bahrick et al 392 participants aged 17-74, recall high school mates using
variety of techniques, 90% accuracy those left 15 years + 80% accuracy left 48 years
! Provides clear evidence into LTM
!…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

X Overestimates the importance of rehearsal, argued flashbulb memories with high-emotion do not
need rehearsal and also contents of book/smell therefore theory is flawed in memory in real world
Multi-Store Model of Memory- Research evidence
Glazer + Kunitz- participants given list of words, good recall for first part and last, words in middle
have poorest recall.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Baddeley and Hitch argue STM has 3 components.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Findings may be more representative of the wider population as many ages used
X Findings with meta-analysis lack internal validity
Ceci et al- age 3-12 read story `Lauren's first day at school', some given misleading info, if none little
difference between age and accuracy of recall, if yes 3-4 showed less than 40% accuracy
! Positive application, shows importance of using misleading info
X Use of story is artificial and bears little relevance to real crime situations
Evidence for weapon focus- Loftus, lab experiment…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

X Findings lack ecological validity, lack of emotion not relevant to how respond in real life
Yuille + Cutshall, effect of leading questions in real crime- gun shop * look at anxiety, found high
accuracy for recall and testimony not affected by misleading questions
Cognitive Interview- Geiselman et al, improve memory by help recall from encoding stage and
increase number of memory retrieval paths
1) Context reinstatement- recall whole event inc.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

CHUNKING- increase amount stored in STM so transfer to LTM, organise info into meaningful chunk as
Miller said 7+-2 in STM
! Clear evidence
X Simon argues size of chunk has effect on how much info stored in STM
ORGANISATION- into meaningful patterns as more likely to be recalled as gives structure, Bower
found 65% info recall using and 19% recall without when given 112 words
! Research replicated, consistently show organisation improves memory
X Bower criticised for artificial nature so…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »