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What is memory?

Information we can recall from the past a process in 3 stages: Encoding (how info is processed to be
held) -> Storage (Holding info in memory system until needed) -> Retrieval (accessing stored info)

Short term memory (STM) and Long term memory (LTM):

3 main factors:…

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Long-term Memory-

Capacity- Unlimited, Standing over a week showed 10,000 photos, few days later 90% recognition

! Provides clear evidence that LTM has unlimited capacity

! Supported by subsequent research

X use of photographs and experimental control is artificial, hard to generalise so low external validity

Duration- Up to a…

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X Overestimates the importance of rehearsal, argued flashbulb memories with high-emotion do not
need rehearsal and also contents of book/smell therefore theory is flawed in memory in real world

Multi-Store Model of Memory- Research evidence

Glazer + Kunitz- participants given list of words, good recall for first part and last,…

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Baddeley and Hitch argue STM has 3 components.

! Provides valuable insight into memory process and gives more valid account of STM

! Supported by large body of research evidence that STM is more complex than one store

! Doesn't rely on rehearsal suggests more valid explanation that other theories…

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! Findings may be more representative of the wider population as many ages used

X Findings with meta-analysis lack internal validity

Ceci et al- age 3-12 read story `Lauren's first day at school', some given misleading info, if none little
difference between age and accuracy of recall, if yes 3-4…

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X Findings lack ecological validity, lack of emotion not relevant to how respond in real life

Yuille + Cutshall, effect of leading questions in real crime- gun shop * look at anxiety, found high
accuracy for recall and testimony not affected by misleading questions


Cognitive Interview-…

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CHUNKING- increase amount stored in STM so transfer to LTM, organise info into meaningful chunk as
Miller said 7+-2 in STM

! Clear evidence

X Simon argues size of chunk has effect on how much info stored in STM

ORGANISATION- into meaningful patterns as more likely…


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