Memory Notes (minus studies)

Memory notes minus studies. These will be added sepearately.

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  • Created on: 15-05-11 11:32
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Memory: The ability to retain and recall information about things that have happened in the past.
Stages in the memory process:
Encoding ­ information is attended to and a trace is created
Storage ­ Encoded information is stored in the brain
Retrieval ­ stored information needs to be accessed to be recalled
There are two main memory stores:
STM ­ A notepad
LTM ­ A library
These two stores differ in terms of:
Encoding ­ how traces are created
Capacity ­ how much they can hold
Duration - how long they can hold them for
The capacity of STM = 7 items (+/- 2)
DURATION IN STM- PETERSON AND PETERSON (1959)
DURATION IN LTM ­ BAHRICK ET AL (1975)
P&P- STM BAHRICK- LTM
Type of experiment Laboratory Natural
How they are different IV is manipulated IV occurs naturally, not
manipulated
Independent variable Retention interval time Age
Length of time since leaving
Nature of task
Dependent variable The amount of recall The amount of recall
Divisions in LTM:
PROCEDURAL LTM SEMANTIC LTM EPSIODIC LTM
Memory for automatic Memory for factual Memory for personal events
Processes Knowledge
Sometimes called
Implicit memory
Sometimes called explicit memory
`Knowing how'
`Knowing that'

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Capacity Duration Encoding
STM 7 (+/- 2) Less than 18 secs if Acoustic
rehearsal is prevented
LTM Unlimited Lifetime Semantic
ENCODING WORD LIST
Encoding refers to the way a memory trace is created, in other words the way that the brain
processes information
Research has shown that STM uses an acoustic code. This means info is processed in a
concrete way, by how it sounds or looks
LTM uses a semantic code.…read more

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Evidence for the Multi-store Model:
`Primacy and Recency Effect' supports the middle words.
The Brown-Peterson Technique- where rehearsal of info is prevented and supports the idea
that rehearsal is needed for transfer of info.
Studies of brain damaged patient's show that individuals can lose one store and retain the
other ­this is evidence that there are two distinct stores.
Evidence against the Multi-store Model:
STM & LTM are much more complex than this model suggests- STM has at least 3 separate
stores as does LTM.…read more

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The Central Executive:
This component drives the whole system. It controls `attention' and allocates tasks to the other
components (its slave systems).
The Phonological Loop:
This component stores a number of speech based sounds for brief periods. It has two sections:
-The Phonological Store (inner ear)
-The Articulatory Control Process (inner voice)
The Phonological Store has a two second duration which can then be rehearsed using the Articulatory
Process.
The Visuo-spacial scratchpad (inner eye):
This component sets up and manipulates mental images.…read more

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EYE-WITNESS TESTIMONY: LEADING QUESTIONS ­ LOFTUS AND PALMER (1974)
THE EFFECTS OF SCHEMA'S ANXIETY ON EWT
A `schema' is a template held in memory holding info about things or events that we acquire from
life experiences.
If we can't recall the finer details of something we `reconstruct' memories using schemas and
fill in the gaps.
Schemas will therefore play a part in the inaccuracy of EWT.…read more

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Four principles of the interview:
To recreate the context of the original event, including things like the weather, what the
person was feeling etc...
To report every single detail that can be recalled, even if it may seem irrelevant.
To recall the event in different orders, e.g. in reverse order.
To recall the event from a different perspective, e.g. to be asked to recount the event from
the eyes of another person who had a different view.…read more

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This is an area of research with mixed findings. Much of the research comes from lab
experiments which lack validity.
However, it is ethically impossible to make studies more distressing in order to increase the
validity of such research.
Details of `real' crimes that children have witnessed are difficult to access because of
confidentiality issues.
This continues to be an area of controversy.…read more

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This effect also works if we recreate the mood we were in when we learnt something
Goodwin tested `drunken' participants and asked them to hide keys. When they were sober
the participants couldn't find them. However, when they were drunk again, they found them
easily.…read more

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