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Memory: The ability to retain and recall information about things that have happened in the past.

Stages in the memory process:
Encoding ­ information is attended to and a trace is created
Storage ­ Encoded information is stored in the brain
Retrieval ­ stored information needs to be accessed to…

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Capacity Duration Encoding
STM 7 (+/- 2) Less than 18 secs if Acoustic
rehearsal is prevented
LTM Unlimited Lifetime Semantic


Encoding refers to the way a memory trace is created, in other words the way that the brain
processes information
Research has shown that STM uses an…

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Evidence for the Multi-store Model:
`Primacy and Recency Effect' supports the middle words.
The Brown-Peterson Technique- where rehearsal of info is prevented and supports the idea
that rehearsal is needed for transfer of info.
Studies of brain damaged patient's show that individuals can lose one store and retain the

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The Central Executive:
This component drives the whole system. It controls `attention' and allocates tasks to the other
components (its slave systems).

The Phonological Loop:
This component stores a number of speech based sounds for brief periods. It has two sections:
-The Phonological Store (inner ear)
-The Articulatory Control Process…

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A `schema' is a template held in memory holding info about things or events that we acquire from
life experiences.

If we can't recall the finer details of something we `reconstruct' memories using schemas…

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Four principles of the interview:
To recreate the context of the original event, including things like the weather, what the
person was feeling etc...
To report every single detail that can be recalled, even if it may seem irrelevant.
To recall the event in different orders, e.g. in reverse order.…

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This is an area of research with mixed findings. Much of the research comes from lab
experiments which lack validity.
However, it is ethically impossible to make studies more distressing in order to increase the
validity of such research.
Details of `real' crimes that children have witnessed are difficult to…

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This effect also works if we recreate the mood we were in when we learnt something
Goodwin tested `drunken' participants and asked them to hide keys. When they were sober
the participants couldn't find them. However, when they were drunk again, they found them

Rehearsal- anything we learn…


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