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Psychology Notes
(Pages 2-35)

Models of Memory
The Multi-Store Model:
The multi-store model is an explanation for how our memories, and how we recall them, works.
Created by Atkinson and Shiffrin, this model suggests that the information that we take in flows
from one storage system to another. The storages…

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The sensory memory is the first storage which has the shortest duration and smallest capacity.
Information enters into here via our five senses (touch, taste, smell, see and hear) which then
allows the SM to quickly make a note of it. Impressions from our senses are lost rapidly from the…

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- However, as a lab study, the experiment lacks ecological validity

Research for Capacity in STM = Miller (1956)
After reviewing the results from his study, Miller found that the capacity of the STM was between 5
and 9 items (7+/-2 units). But, also found that `chunking' info was a…

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Evaluation of the Multi Store Model

+ The MSM proved to be very influential and inspired a variety of experiments into the different
areas of it. This then led to a greater understanding of how memory works.

- Many disagreed by saying that the MSM had gotten over simplified.

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The Working Memory Model:
The working memory model is another type of memory model suggested by Baddeley and Hitch
as they questioned the single STM store. They argued that the STM was more complex and was
more of an `active' store, rather than a passive one. As a replacement to…

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There are `slave' systems in the WMM which deal with different sensory information. The
phonological loop is similar to the rehearsal which takes place in the MSM. It has a limited
capacity determined by the amount of words spoken out loud in around 2 seconds. As this is a

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The other component in the WMM is the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad which is also known as the
inner eye. This component handles all non-phonological information as it deals with visual and spatial
elements in people's physical surroundings. The VSS is the component which allows people to
navigate and interact in their…

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Memory of Everyday Life
Eyewitness Testimony

When there is a need for recall in legal settings (such as courts), judges and juries usually depend on
eye witnesses to retrieve information from their memories. In 1932, Bartlett stated that memories
were not accurate in remember things for how they were. And…

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Research for the effect of Anxiety factors on EWT's = Loftus (1987)
Loftus found that if a person was carrying a gun, then the witness was less likely to focus of their
face. Due to raised anxiety levels, the witness's recall for the facial details declined as their
attention was…

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Research for the Cognitive Interview = Fisher (1989)
Fisher assess police officers when they attempted to gather information off witnesses. It was found
that methods from the ECI were more superior in gathering info than the standard CI.

Evaluation of Cognitive Interviews

- A practical problem of the CI is…


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