Memory (lessons 1-4)

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Unit 1: Memory.
Lesson 1.
Cognitive psychology Memory.
Short-term Memory; memory of immediate events. Last a very short time 7 disappear unless
they're rehearsed, has a limited duration & capacity of store. Use for comprehending language,
solving problems ect.
Long-term Memory; memory of past events, from 2 minutes to 100 years. The memory store has
unlimited duration & capacity.
Capacity of Memory:
Capacity; a measure of how much can be held in memory, in terms of bits of information, such as
digits.
Jacobs (18 86).
The average span for digits was 9.3 where as it was 7.3 for letters.
Maybe because there are only 9 digits where as there are 26 letters.
Age has an effect on capacity of memory.
George Miller (19 58).
The short term memory capacity is 7, plus or minus 2.
Wrote an article called the "magic number 7 plus or minus 2"
Chunking; Miller suggested that capacity of the short term memory can be increased by
grouping information
Lesson 2.
Encoding of Memory.
Encoding; Way information is changed to be stored in memory; this is entered by the senses. It can
be stored semantically or acoustically.
Braddeley (19 66).
Found that people had difficulty in remembering acoustically similar words in short term
memory but not in Long term memory.
Semantically similar words posed little problem in short term memory but led to meddled
long term memory.
Acoustically similar: rhyming words, words that sound the same.
Semantically similar; words with the same meaning.
Lesson 3.

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Duration of Memory.
Peterson & Peterson (1959).
How letters remembered will be higher in a short amount of time compared to a longer
amount of time.
Investigating the duration of short term memory.
Sample of 24 students.
Given 3 letters for 3 seconds. Then had to count back aloud from a number by 3's. Then had
to recall the letters.
90% were accurate after 3 seconds. 2% were accurate after 18 seconds.
Short term memory lasts a maximum of 20 seconds.…read more

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