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Understanding the information
· Long term memory is encoded semantically and similar
information is grouped together into schemas.
· In order to encode information correctly we need to
understand what it means. This occurs during
elaborate rehearsal.
· The schema will aid retrieval when the memory is
reconstructed…read more

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Understanding the information-
Bransford and Johnson
Read a list of statements to 2 groups:
· The first group were told the statements were about
doing the laundry, the second group weren't told this.
· Found that the first group had much better recall of
the statements than the second group as they
understood what the information meant, which
allowed them to store it in the correct part of LTM.
· Upon recall schemas would match the information to
be recalled hence aiding recall…read more

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Duel coding hypothesis
· If we remember a picture for each word in a list we
are trying to remember then we encode the
information twice, once semantically and once visually.
· This means that we are twice as likely to remember
the word…read more

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Duel coding hypothesis- Bower's study
2 groups:
· First group asked to look at a list of words and write
down the words they could remember
· Second group asked to imagine a picture to go with
each word that needs to be remembered and then
write down the words they could remember
· Found that participants in group 2 remembered 80%
more words than group one as they used pictures and
therefore encoded the information twice…read more

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acronyms
· Uses letters to act as cues that aid retrieval. They
also work because in order to create the acronym we
need to process and understand the information.
· Each letter triggers the retrieval of an important
word that then acts as a further trigger to recall the
rest of the information from LTM…read more

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