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Slide 1

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Remembering & Forgetting…read more

Slide 2

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MSM Model
· This model was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and became the
basis for decades of research into the structure of memory.
· They proposed three separated memory stores that vary in terms of coding,
duration and capacity.…read more

Slide 3

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Sensory Short-term Long-term
Memory Memory Memory
Capacity All sensory 7 +/- 2 items (can Unlimited
How much does it experience be increased by
hold? chunking)
Duration ¼ second ­ visual 18 ­ 30 seconds Unlimited
How long does it 4 seconds ­
last? auditory
Coding In the form which Mainly Mainly semantic (i.
In what form is it it is received (i.e. phonological (i.e. e. based on
stored? sense-specific) auditory or meaning)
sound-based)…read more

Slide 4

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MSM Model
Aim Sperling (1960) set out to demonstrate the capacity of
sensory memory.
Method A visual array of 12 letters was displayed to participants
for 50 milliseconds. After this participants heard either a
tone of a high, medium or low pitch. The participants' task
was to report the letters they had seen from either the
top, middle or bottom row, depending on which tone they
had heard.
Results Sperling found that most participants could report the
four letters from the selected row, whichever was cued.
Conclusion Sperling concluded that a large amount of sensory
information could be store in sensory memory, but it
faded very quickly probably within a quarter of a second
after the presentation had ceased.…read more

Slide 5

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Primary ­ Recency Effect
· if you are given a list of 15 ­ 20 words and asked to recall them in order, you
will usually find that you remember several items at the start of the list and
at the end but less in the middle.
· Items recalled from the start are due to the primacy effect and items
recalled from the end are due to the recency effect.…read more

Slide 6

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How does this support the MSM?
· When we hear the first few words, we usually rehearse them and so
this transfers the words into our LTM.
· The rehearsal means we tend to miss the words in the middle of the
list unless they are unusual or relevant.
· The last few word in the list are retained in our STM for long enough
when the reader has finished speaking to enable us to recall them
straightaway from our STM.…read more

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