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METHODS! Types of study little snippets to learn and keep
The Experimental Method
The experimenter acts on the IV which changes the DV which is then measured.
This method is the method used most often.
Conducting it in a lab
The main way to ensure that changes in the DV are caused by the IV is to keep
everything else / all the confounding variables controlled.
These are good as they can be easily replicated and there is an excellent level of
control. They are however artificial and there may be various confounding
variables that can t be controlled.
This method simply looks at the relationship between two variables. However
even if a relationship between variables is discovered, it cannot be concluded
that one caused the other because there could be other possible explanations.
Correlations yield no cause and effect relationship.
These experiments are carried out in a naturalistic setting.
This is good as participants of ten behave far more naturally however there are
often various ethical issues attached and it is also incredibly time consuming to
conduct a field experiment. There is also very little control over other extraneous
In natural experiments variable changes are measured but the IV isn't
manipulated by the experimenter and participants have not been randomly
selected. Rich data is however gained and there is better ecological validity due
to the naturalistic setting
However Replication is usually not possible.Naturalistic observations follow this
method is designed to examine behaviour without experimenter interference. It is
a research method that looks at how people or animals behave in a natural
situation. The observer may be disclosed or undisclosed to those taking part.
These involve asking either a series of questions or general discussion around
the topic area. This is the difference between structured and unstructured
This involves asking participants about their attitudes, behaviour or intentions.
The aim is to obtain information of a specific population of interest by
administering the questionnaire to a sample of that population. They can be
conducted by post, phone, Internet or even in the street.