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Surgery and
Anatomy
Pre-History
Trepanning to remove evil spirits
Casting broken bones


Ancient Egypt
Mummification was for religious/spiritual reasons so
did not lead to much improvement in anatomical
knowledge
Simple operations ­ casting broken bones, setting
dislocated bones etc


Ancient Greece
Dissection allowed at Alexandria
Humours theory meant a lot…

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Ancient Rome
Amputations, trepanning and removal of cataracts
were all performed successfully
Turpentine used as antiseptic and opium as
anaesthetic
Dissection forbidden


Middle Ages
Surgery not taught at universities as rarely
successful
Became surgeon by apprenticing other surgeons
Women could become surgeons but couldn't
become members of the guild (professionals)…

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William Harvey proved the heart acted like a pump
and sent blood to the lungs then is sent around the
body


Industrial Revolution
Anaesthetics
o Humphrey Davey `Laughing Gas'
o Crawford Long ­ Ether
o James Simpson ­ Chloroform
Antiseptic
o Ignaz Semmelweiss ­ Hand washing
o Joseph Lister ­…

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