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· Galen was Greek he lived in the Roman era.
· He trained as a doctor at the Asclepion then at Alexandria. But by then dissection on
humans had been banned for religious reasons so only skeletons could be studied.
· But as a doctor to gladiators Galen could increase…

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· Then there was pneumonic plague which was more deadly, it attacked the lungs and
made it more painful to breathe. Symptoms included coughing up blood and killed
within a few days.
· It was believed to be a judgement from God or caused by the planets, some thought it…

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· The great fire of London sterilised large areas by burning germs in 1666.
· Public health was worse. Religious differences led to wars.
· Populations increased putting more strain on clean water and sewage disposal.
· Warfare used up resources, destroyed crops creating poverty.
· Homelessness and the disabled…

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· In1857 by accident Louis Pasteur discovered the link between germs and disease.
· Joseph Lister developed a better microscope that magnified x1000, this meant better
· Originally Pasteur became interested in microorganisms when a brewing company
asked for his help (communication) to find out why alcohol was going…

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· People's attitudes were that they wanted to reduce the cost of looking after the poor
not increase it, rate payers, business men and politicians didn't like being told they
would have to pay for reform.
· But he contributed to getting the first health act passed because his report…

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· They were also ineffective against stronger microbes.

· Alexander Fleming was first to discover the drug penicillin, which prevented bacteria
· During ww1 he became interested in how to treat wounds that became infected he
noted that antiseptics used weren't very effective.
· In 1922 he found that…

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· This made the government take notice of the health problems of the poor as some of
them were soldiers and weren't capable of defending their country.
· There was pressure for social change.
· The blitz in 1940 prompted the government to set up the emergency medical service,

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· This made it possible to experiment.

· Ww1 helped medicine because it allowed doctors and surgeons to develop their
· It also hindered it because 14000 doctors were taken away from normal work to help
with war.
· Medical research was hindered.

· Ww2 was important because it…

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· Settlements such as army camps were sited in healthy places (not near swamps). In
other places marshes were drained (Julius Caesar drained the Codetan swamp near
Rome), which reduced malaria.
· They had their own version of the Greek's Programme for Health. The doctor Alderotti
advised people to stretch…

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· When the Boer War revealed that half the population were unfit for military service, the
government accepted that it had to pass laws to improve the situation of the individual
· In 1906 local councils were told to provide free school meals for poor children.
· In 1907…


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