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Hippocrates (460BC-377BC) (ANCIENT
Known as `The Father of Modern Medicine'.
Developed the theory of the four humours (black
bile, yellow bile, blood & phlegm), which he then
linked to the seasons to explain illness.
Supported the idea of exercising regularly and
eating a balanced diet ­ the principles of a
healthy lifestyle ­ as a way of preventing illness.
Developed the idea and practice of clinical
observation, in which symptoms and treatments,
both wrong and right, were recorded for future
Invented the `Hippocratic Oath' which is still used
today by doctors, as a promise to do their best for…read more

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Claudius Galen (129 AD-200AD)
Began as a doctor in a gladiator school, which developed his
understanding of anatomy.
Further developed Hippocrates' theory of the four humours,
into theory of the opposites.
Believed the human body was a perfect design and therefore
his teachings lasted through the Dark Ages.
Proved through public dissection that the brain controlled the
body, not the heart as it had previously been believed.
Encouraged dissection.
However made mistakes due to dissecting animals, rather than
The human jaw was two bones.
The way muscles joined the bone.
Blood seeped through the septum (in the heart).
Humans only have one kidney.
Men had one less rib than women.
The heart used the blood as fuel and the body created more
blood.…read more

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Ambroise Paré (1510-1590)
Renaissance surgeon (originally a barber-
Discovered by chance a cold solution to
seal war wounds. This was made of egg
whites, rose oil and turpentine, rather than
cauterising the wound with boiling oil.
His ointment prevented inflammation and
infection of healing wounds.
Invented ligatures. (However, the ligatures
could have been contaminated but wernt
because germs were undiscovered, lack of
knowledge)…read more

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Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
Renaissance doctor.
Published a book called `The Fabric of The
Human Body' with anatomical
illustrations. Used illustrations with
Leonardo Da Vinci to help understanding
Proved that the jaw was one bone, not two
as was thought by Galen.
Proved that men and women have the
same amount of ribs.
Encouraged dissection.
Stole bodies of hanged convicts…read more

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William Harvey (1578-1657)
Renaissance Doctor.
Proved that blood did not seep through the
septum, as Galen had thought.
Discovered and proved the circulatory system.
Proved that valves controlled the blood flow in
experiments using lizards.
Published a paper `Anatomical Essay on The
Motion of The Heart and Blood in Animals'.
His ideas and discoveries meant people began
questioning blood-letting.
Predicted capillaries, but couldn't be proven
because there was no microscope yet…read more

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Rob Collard

Very helpful, I am really grateful for these resources.

Miss E

Using individuals is a different angle and makes a nice change from revising chronologically. There is a lot of good information on this resource.


very helpful


is this all you need to know?


This is incredibly helpful, I can't thank you enough!!!

sophie radford

Very helpful but the date for germ theory was wrong it was 1864 not 61



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