Medicine Through Time Individuals.

OCR based Medicine Through Time Individuals from Ancient Greece to the discovery and development of penicillin.

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Individuals In Medicine Through Time (AQA)
Hippocrates:
Known as `The Father of Modern Medicine'.
Developed the theory of the four humours (black bile, yellow bile, blood & phlegm),
which he then linked to the seasons to explain illness.
Supported the idea of exercising regularly and eating a balanced diet ­ the principles
of a healthy lifestyle ­ as a way of preventing illness.
Developed the idea and practice of clinical observation, in which symptoms and
treatments, both wrong and right, were recorded for future reference.
Invented the `Hippocratic Oath' which is still used today by doctors, as a promise to
do their best for their patients and not exploit them.
Published a series of books called `The Hippocratic Collection'.
Galen:
Began as a doctor in a gladiator school, which developed his understanding of
anatomy.
Further developed Hippocrates' theory of the four humours, into theory of the
opposites.
Believed the human body was a perfect design and therefore his teachings lasted
through the Dark Ages.
Proved through public dissection that the brain controlled the body, not the heart as
it had previously been believed.
Encouraged dissection.
However made mistakes due to dissecting animals, rather than humans:
The human jaw was two bones.
The way muscles joined the bone.
Blood seeped through the septum (in the heart).
Humans only have one kidney.
Men had one less rib than women.
The heart used the blood as fuel and the body created more blood.
Andreas Vesalius:
Renaissance doctor.
Published a book called `The Fabric of The Human Body' with anatomical illustrations.
Proved that the jaw was one bone, not two as was thought by Galen.
Proved that men and women have the same amount of ribs.
Encouraged dissection.
William Harvey:
Renaissance Doctor.
Proved that blood did not seep through the septum, as Galen had thought.
Discovered and proved the circulatory system.
Proved that valves controlled the blood flow in experiments using lizards.
Published a paper `Anatomical Essay on The Motion of The Heart and Blood in
Animals'.
His ideas and discoveries meant people began questioning blood-letting.
Ambroise Pare:
Renaissance surgeon (originally a barber-surgeon).

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Discovered by chance a cold solution to seal war wounds. This was made of egg
whites, oil and turpentine, rather than cauterising the wound with boiling oil.
His ointment prevented inflammation and infection of healing wounds.
Invented ligatures.
Edward Jenner:
Developed the first vaccination (this was for smallpox) using a weaker form of the
disease ­ cowpox ­ which was not life threatening.
However, he did not understand what caused the disease.
Louis Pasteur:
Discovered microorganisms.…read more

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This initial expense of a health act would
be better in the long run for the economy of the country.
He made the connection in his report that disease was linked to the living conditions.
Appointed Sanitation Commissioner once the health act was introduced and brought
in fresh clean water to every house, sewage systems etc.
Florence Nightingale:
Pioneer in nursing.
Made the connection between dirt and disease.
Started boiling sheets and medical supplies before patients used them.
Did not understand the origins of disease.…read more

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