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Prehistoric Medicine
Know very little due to lack of written word but they had no understanding themselves.

Causes
- all down to spirits, demons, gods.
- a fit would mean they are possessed, if ill, their spirit has left you/been taken over.

Cure
- some natural methods. Herbal medicine found…

Page 2

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Surgery
- craftsmen were now becoming skilled. This led to a new range of tools being used, some for surgery.
- did minor surgery that was purely scientific. Broken noses, etc.

Public Health
- if you were rich, you could have a doctor. No other help for you. Man of…

Page 3

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- believed smells and water carried diseases so didn't build near water, swamps, sewage.
- prevention was better than cure - public health gave cleanliness.
- encouraged observation and recording of symptoms. Continuity from Hippocrates.
- had another more sensible idea, incorrect, but still better than superstition - balance of…

Page 4

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- barber surgeons - could do small things, on the outside.

Public Health
- the church provided some of the only public health. They helped the sick and the poor by using hospitals, generally in monasteries.
- helpful to a certain extent as would provide peace and quiet and rest.…

Page 5

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- also tried ligatures, sealing an amputated wound. Meant he saw a problem, blood loss, tried to fight it. Failed generally, but more skilful
than applying heat.
- without knowledge of what caused germs, infection still spread. Worked in theory but wasn't until later it worked.

War helped - battlefield…

Page 6

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- looked into vaccines for rabies and anthrax.
- Koch, Germany, better doctor. Found that germs were linked to certain diseases.
- found the particular germs causing TB and cholera.

Tech helped - powerful microscopes and dyes to stain microbes.
War helped - between Germany and France, 1860s, rivalry led…

Page 7

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Continuity has helped find cures - taking on each other's work. Swapping information, so communication, has also
helped.

Anatomy
- increased understanding, how to stop heart, tissue rejection, all work done by Barnard, began many years ago by William Harvey.
Continuity.

Surgery
- doctors found that only blood from compatible…

Page 8

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- if have to compare sources' usefulness, can use the conclusion that they reveal different things.
- reliability does come into how useful a source is - if it is not reliable it reduces its usefulness.

Whether a source is reliable.
- sources can be biased - but got to…

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