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Major Contributors
Philosophy ·Hippocrates is regarded as being "The Regimen
·The Ancient Greeks liked Father of Medicine" because of his ·Regimen is an organised
thinking influence on Medicine. lifestyle.
·Famous Greek philosophers ·Aristotle was a philosopher who came ·It was a result of Greek
include Pythagoras, Plato, up with the Theory of the Four philosophy.
Aristotle and Hippocrates. Humours. ·Regimen led to
·Philosophers developed ·Asclepios was a physician who was improved health and
numerous ideas about the way later worshipped as a god. fitness.
that people should live - which ·Regimen can be linked
influenced medical beliefs. to athletic activity - for
example the Olympics.
Four Humours Medicine in
·The Humours are all liquids
within the body. Ancient Greece Asclepios
·Aristotle, and later ·Was a physician in Greece
Hippocrates, said that these around 1200 BC.
liquids were linked to the ·Asclepios was later
elements and the seasons. Clinical Observation worshipped and temples
·The Humours had to be in ·Clinical Observation was were built in his name.
balance for a person to be developed by Hippocrates. ·Cures combined
healthy. ·It involved a doctor observing a supernatural and natural
·Treatments tried to balance patient, making a diagnosis, then forms of medicine.
the 4 Humours. treating the patient following ·Asclepions were hugely
further careful observations. popular and continued into
·Clinical Observation was a the Roman era.
patient driven method of treating
ailments - a new idea…read more

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Change
·The Romans were more practical
Continuity in their approach to medicine - it Public Health
·The Roman Empire overlaps served a purpose. ·Empirical Observation led the
chronologically with the Ancient ·Roman government was Romans to realise that bad smells
Greek period - the Romans also centralised and wealthy. were linked with poor health.
had contact with Egyptians. ·Roman doctors, Galen in ·The Romans invested in Public
·The Romans developed ideas particular, learnt new things about Health across the whole Empire.
such as Regimen. human anatomy. ·Rome had over a hundred toilets.
·Roman medicine continued to ·Public Health was prioritised. ·Baths, Sewers and Aquaducts were
mix supernatural and natural also built by the Romans
forms of medicine.
The Army Medicine in the Religion
·Romans visited temples
·The Army of the Roman empire
had to be kept fit and healthy. Roman Empire such as Asclepions.
·The Army was stationed across ·The Roman Empire later
the whole of the Empire. converted to Christianity.
·The army spent much of it's time ·They believed that many
building roads and Public Works. things were signs from gods.
·The welfare of the army is a ·Roman Medicine was based
major reason for investment in more on practical, natural
Galen considerations than Religious
Public Health.
·Galen worked with Gladiators, in an Asclepion beliefs.
and trained at the best schools.
·Galen became the physician to the Emperor's
son which allowed him to write.
·Galen developed the ideas of Hippocrates.
·Galen described, quite accurately, the
anatomy of the Human body.…read more

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Medical Beliefs
·People believed that diseases were
Impact of the Fall of Rome caused by a range of things: That they Public Health
·A lack of a strong central were sent by God as a punishment, ·There was little investment
government meant that that disease was associated with bad in Public Health until after
investment in Public Health air, that strangers could bring disease. the Black Death.
stopped. ·Some people believed that rest and ·Sewers, Aqueducts and
·Wars leading to the fall of herbal remedies could heal. baths fell into disrepair.
Rome led to books and ·Public Health was not a
knowledge being lost to priority for European
Western Europeans. governments at the time.
Changes in Medicine
during the Middle Ages
Religion ­ Positive Impact The Impact of War
·The Church invested in training ·War led to the destruction of
institutions such as the medical Religion ­ Negative Impact books and places where medicine
University at Salerno. ·The Catholic Church was was studied.
·Monasteries provided care and unchallenged in Europe. ·War also led to exposure to
medical attention for people. ·The Churches teachings were Islamic ideas about illness and
·Medical books were copied by accepted as being 'the truth'. treatments - which were more
Monks. ·The Church taught that God advanced.
punished people for wrong-doing. ·War allowed early barber
·The clergy accepted the works of surgeons to develop their skills.
Hippocrates and Galen.…read more

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Communications
·The printing press was invented.
·Vesalius had his book.'The Fabric of the
Human Body', containing detailed drawings,
published in 1543.
·The Royal Society was started in 1661. Art
War
Scientists shared their ideas. Experimentation ·Careful observation led to very
·Pare was an army surgeon
was encouraged. accurate pictures of human
for 20 years seeing many
anatomy drawn by artists such
sword and gunshot wounds.
as Leonardo da Vinci.
He said that observation was
·Many of these artists did their
better than theory/books.
own dissections.
Factors involved in the
Medical Renaissance
Technology
·The microscope allowed Chance
people to see small ·Pare ran out of oil and had
vessels, organisms etc. to make an ointment to use
·The water pump was Individual Determination on his patients. This worked
developed. This gave ·Vesalius had to steal human corpses to do better than the old method
William Harvey an idea his dissections as a young man.
·Vesalius had to prove that Galen was
wrong despite opposition to this idea.
·Vesalius had to take on the opposition of
the Roman Catholic Church.
·Pare challenged old methods in surgery.…read more

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War/Nationalism
·The Franco Prussian War 1870 created a
rivalry between Pasteur and Koch which
spurred them forward
·Pasteur's son was killed in the war -
Education Pasteur threw himself into his work. Economy/Government
·Pasteur and Koch both had the ·It became a matter of nationalistic pride ·Both the French and Prussian
benefit of secular university to make the most progress in germ theory economies were wealthy and
education. industrialised and could afford
·Education became an to back scientists
important issue in industrialised ·e.g. The Pasteur Institute
countries with most people Factors in the ·Pasteur backed by French silk
and wine industries.
receiving some form of basic
education. development of the
germ theory
Technology Religion
·Development of the microscope ·The idea that disease could
meant that Pasteur was able to see Communications
be explained "naturally" was
"microbes" and prove why Jenner's ·Means of communication such as
well established in 19th
vaccination worked. the telegraph, trains and journals
century Europe.
·Koch's more powerful microscope improved dramatically.
·The Church did not overtly
allowed him to identify individual ·Pasteur, Koch and others such as
obstruct medical progress.
bacteria paving the way for further Lister were able to communicate
vaccinations and drug treatments. their ideas widely and quickly.
·Specialist medical/scientific journals
such as the "Lancet" emerged.…read more

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