Medicine Through Time - Complete set of notes (Prehistoric - Impact of the NHS)

Complete set of notes written by myself for GCSE History course 'Medicine Through Time' for exam board OCR. Topics cover:

  • Prehistoric and Aboriginal Medicine
  • Ancient Egyptian and Greek Medicine
  • The Four Humours
  • Roman Medicine and Galen
  • Collapse of the Roman Empire and Galen
  • Medieval Medicine
  • The Black Death
  • The Renaissance and Surgery in the Middle Ages
  • Ambroise Pare
  • William Harvey
  • 18th Century Medicine and Inoculation
  • Edward Jenner and Vaccination
  • Discovering the Cause of Disease and Spontaneous Generation
  • Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur
  • Magic Bullets
  • Penicillin
  • Surgery Before 19th Century and Anaestetics
  • Antiseptic and Aseptic Surgery
  • How did World War 1 Improve Surgery
  • Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole
  • Women Doctors in the 1800s
  • The Stages of Women Entering the Medical Profession
  • Public Health
  • Edwin Chadwich and William Farr
  • John Snow and Cholera
  • Why Public Health Was Finally Improved
  • Liberal Reforms
  • The Impact of War on the Government
  • The NHS

Pages in this set

Page 1

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Prehistoric and Aboriginal Medicine
Prehistoric people were:

Nomads ­ meaning that they had no fixed home and they moved around
They were huntergatherers ­ they got all their food without farming
They lived in small groups without complicated political arrangements
They had very simple levels of technology ­ spears, bows…

Page 2

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Egyptian Medicine
How did life in Egypt affect medicine?

The rich could afford doctors to look after them. These doctors spent much of
their lives trying to improve their understanding of medicine and health
The rich also employed specialist craftsmen like metal workers to make tools or
jewellery. They also…

Page 3

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Public Health in Ancient Greece
In Ancient Greece the idea of having a healthy lifestyle to maintain a healthy body was
very popular. The Greeks believed that eating and drinking well helped to keep your
body healthy and exercise was also an important part of people's routine.

Alexandria is…

Page 4

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The main change of ideas in Greek people was that they began to think of more natural
causes for disease, more rational explanations instead of only the fault of the gods and

The Four Humours
The theory of the four humours was first put forward by Aristotle but was…

Page 5

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Roman Medicine
Public health is the measures taken by a government to look after the health of its
The Romans built:
Aqueducts ­ they transported water to buildings
Bathhouses ­ they were cheap to visit and encouraged personal hygiene
Public toilets ­ they were flushed clean with running water…

Page 6

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The collapse of the Roman Empire
Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, Europe was plunged into chaos
Medical libraries were destroyed
Rulers spent money on armies and defences rather than public health
There was less travel ­ less sharing of knowledge
Training of doctors was abandoned
Galen's books were…

Page 7

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Medieval Medicine
Medieval towns were very dirty places
Water supplies were often contaminated
Sewage ran freely in the streets
The government did not see why they had to pay for public health and so they
There were only two groups of people that could live fairly clean lives: the…

Page 8

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The Black Death
The black death came to Britain in 1348 and killed between a third and a half of
the population
The disease manifested itself through fever, vomiting, headaches and buboes in
the armpit or groin
After a few days the victim either recovered or developed dark bruising all…

Page 9

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The Renaissance
Renaissance means `The rebirth' It was the beginning of old idea's being
Advances in printing and art meant that doctors were better able to produce
records of their work and make books for others to be able to learn from.
Artists attended dissections of humans and drew…

Page 10

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Surgery performed in the Middle Ages was limited, painful and often fatal

Two different groups of people performed surgery at the time:
BarberSurgeons were barbers who cut people's hair and also performed
some surgery. They learnt surgery as a trade and so had no medical training
at all but were…


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