Media summaries: summary of persuasion on media and TV adverts

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Media revision
Media summaries: summary of persuasion
Hovland Yale model if you pay attention to a message then you understand the
message you are more likely to accept it and change your attitude. Change depends
on 3 factors: source (experts are more credible, popular/attractive sources are
more effective), message (2 sided argument, moderate level of fear, repeated
exposure), audience (moderate intelligence, mood of audience)
Evaluation: attractive source (Chaiken and Eagly) likeable presenters more
influential in video/audio media. Expert source (Hovland and Weiss) participants
more influenced by Oppenheimer (scientist) than a Russian newspaper for a
nuclear submarine plan. Repeated exposure (Zajonc) the more participants saw
trigrams, Chinese symbols and photos the more they liked them. Fear (Sturges and
Rogers) stop smoking campaigns more influential with fear and solution. Fear alone
makes it worse. Double sided message (Hovland) those who know about the topic, it
should include both viewpoints. Experienced American soldiers more influenced by
2 sided arguments regarding the outcome of the war, new recruits more influenced
by 1 sided message. Mood of audience (Sinclair, Mark, Clare) if phoned on a sunny
day participants more likely to agree to more exams. IQ of audience (Wood and
Stagner) medium levels of intelligence more likely to accept new messages.
supported by evidence, first model of its kind and is still used today. doesn't
explain how factors influence attitude change, doesn't say which factors are most
important.
Elaboration likelihood model central route used by those with high intelligence,
motivation and time to think about the message leads to long term change and those
people are influenced by factors such as facts and a credible expert. Peripheral
route for those with low intelligence, motivation or time and leads to short term
change. Peripheral factors such as colour, music, emotion and attractive presenters
lead to change. Evidence: Vidrine those with high need for cognition preferred
facts in antismoking campaign, those with low need for cognition prefer peripheral
factors. Lin Taiwanese students looked at reviews of phones on Amazon. Those
with high need for cognition looked at quality of reviews those with rather than
quantity. Zajonc more often participants saw Chinese symbols, nonsense
trigrams and photos the more they liked them. Petty increased motivation leads
to central route processing for students who would be effected by a new exam for
their course, those who aren't affected just looked at the source of the message as
they had less motivation. 2 route approach may be too simplistic as we could use
both routes at the same time or one could lead to the activation of the other.
Explanations of effectiveness of TV advertising (see Hovland Yale, Elaboration
likelihood here too)

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Media revision
McGuire's model: exposure to the message (adverts on the same time on different
channels) Attention- colours, increased/decreased volume, attractive source,
funny adverts grab attention. Comprehension- main message kept simple and clear.
Acceptance- individual differences drive differential time for acceptance as some
question the message but others don't. Retention- message needs to be remembered
to adverts are put in shops are reminders. Action- person needs to be prompted
into action with special deals. explains why some adverts are more effective
than others.…read more

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