Media Studies Keywords and Theories

    A List of keywords and some audiece theories

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  • Created by: Duffeh
  • Created on: 14-05-11 21:48
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Media Studies
Action Code ­ A sign to the audience that a narrative event will happen.
Anchorage - The text under an image that directs the reader toward the meaning of the text.
Audience response- How the audience responds to a text or consumes it.
Audience Positioning- This is where they are encouraged to view the text from certain
Audio Codes ­ Sound effects, voice over, dialogue, music
Binary opposition ­A narrative can be driven by contrast and conflict. E.g. Bad and good
Connotations- Additional association which the reader brings to the text.
Conventions ­ Widely accepted set of rules relating to a genre or aspect of media.
Cropping- Cutting an image to focus on a particular part.
Denotations ­ What we see.
Decoding ­ what we do when we read and interpret the text.
Disequilibrium- period of instability and insecurity in a narrative.
Dominant Reader ­ This is where the audience interprets the text closely to the way in which
producers of the text intended, usually this will be the primary target audience.
Enigma code - Controls the amount of information to make the audience curious and want to
see the more of the text. It is a piece of the puzzles Producers use enigma codes to get the
interest of the audience, which make them want to see the rest or more of the text.
Encoding- the elements put in during the production stage to create meaning or to position
the audience
Equilibrium ­ A state of peace and calm found at the start and the end of the narrative.
Genre ­ A category of films using same conventions.
Iconography- Particular signs associated with particular genre.

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Ideological ­ Opinions, believes and ways of thinking of a person or group.
Mise-en-scene ­ refers to everything we see in the frame.
Narrative- The process by which text is constructed.
Negotiated Reader ­ This is where the audience adjusts their viewpoint in order to get the
most of out of the viewing.
Oppositional Reader ­ Where the reader finds themselves in conflicts with the text.
Representation- The way media recreates the real world and shows it to us.…read more

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Refer to characters as Propp's hero etc. The three main characters are Hero,
Villain and the Heroine. He proposed that stories are character driven and that
the plots develop around the actions of characters. He claimed that it was
possible to group characters and actions in narratives into roles and functions that
move the story along. He suggested that there were essentially eight character
roles and 31 functions.…read more

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The Enigma Code- These codes control the amount of information released to
the audience in order to engage and intrigue them ­ make them curious enough
to want to consume more of the text. E.g. a mysterious characters digging in a
hole at night, making the audience want to know what they up to.
Action Codes- These codes signal to the audience that a narrative event will
take place.…read more

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Personal Identity ­ Where people look to identify with characters or points
of view that are "like them". This can provide affirmation of their beliefs,
attitude, way of life etc.
Social Interaction- The media can enable social interaction by being used as
a topic of conversation. Or this can be a form of companionship with the
readers seeing characters as friends.…read more

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In the Lion King the hyenas spoke in a hip African- American accent, some minority
groups complained that this positioned the audience to see African- American as
threatening and deceitful.
Media texts aimed at young people tend to be relaxed but energetic, slang from
the target audience may be used .
Media text aimed at the older generation will use a formal style and standard
English.…read more


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