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Hegemony Domination of the ruling class projecting their ideology upon the
proletariat so that it becomes the consensus view.
Xenophobia The hatred or fear of foreigners, strangers, politics or cultures.
Anchorage The juxtaposition of words to images or images to sound to create
Intertextuality The reference of one media text within another.
Hybridity The combination of media texts to generate something new.
High / Low Culture The higher educated citizens / lower educated citizens
Gate keeping Used in journalism, either through print, radio or television. Gate keepers
are the people within the media who have the power to let some news
stories through and stop others.
Male / female Gaze The way that a media text is constructed, either from the stereotypical
male view, or from the stereotypical view of a female. E.g. a media text
generates under the male gaze may include the sexualisation of women.
Metonym W word that denotes something, but is actually well known to mean
something else. For example ` the bottle' is used widely for alcoholic
Mise en scene Everything that is seen onscreen at a specific moment, from costume to
lighting, diagetic sound etc.
Polysemy When something has a large semantic field, attracting more than one
type of reading or interpretation.
Metaphor A figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something it
does not literally denote.
Didactic Instructional, often teaching a moral lesson.
Emotive Evoking emotions, often generating an emotional reaction from the
Oppositional reading When a reader of a media text rejects its preferred reading.
Mode of Address The way a media text is constructed, the relations between the audience
and the text. Sometimes there will be direct address in the form of
second person pronoun `you', direct address to the audience, other
times there will be 3rd person. It depends upon the purpose of the media
Capitalism Marx's economic system based on making profits from business.
Socialism The idea that the state should own all industry and that every person is
Moral Panic A media reaction to particular social groups or particular activities which
are defined as threatening societal values and consequently create
anxiety amongst the general population. E.g. the fear of knife crime, or
Commodity Fetishism Marx' idea that goods appear to be substantial objects but are actually
networks of social relationships. E.g. many objects are desirable primarily
for prestige, rather than any practical purpose. People feel compelled to
purchase them to obtain a certain social status.
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Hyper reality The simulation of something which never really existed. The inability to
distinguish between what is real and what is not. Sometimes described
as enhanced reality, some people can be more engaged with hyper
reality than the real world.
Verisimilitude The quality of realism in a media text; how realistic the representations
that are on offer are.
Uses and Gratifications An approach to understanding mass communication and why people use
the media. Developed from studies in the mid 20th century.…read more
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Open Narrative Open ended storylines, where the reading of the media text is usually
casual at the demand of the audience, seemingly never-ending e.g.
soaps seem as though they will go on forever.
Closed Narrative Tight reading of a media text, often within a time constraint and has a
Circular narrative A narrative that has certain plots repeated, usually ending back at the
PBS Public Broadcasting Service. Media outlets that are controlled by the