First 428 words of the document:
Building block: Media Influences
AO / IDA Content of paragraph
AO1 Can explain why media influences addictive behaviour.
Bandura behaviour is learned through observation and imitation.
Social Learning Media frequently shows drug/alcohol use of celebrities, which can encourage
Theory others to adopt these habits from their `role models.'
AO2 Waylen et al. found that teenagers who watch films showing actors who
smoke were more likely to start themselves.
Support This supports social learning theory as they observe the behaviour of the
characters and begin to imitate it in order to be more like them, as smoking
is often glamorised in the media.
AO1 Sulkunen found that drug enjoyment was often contrasted with the dullness
of ordinary life.
Drug Films show drug competence and enjoyment, and suggest that they can
Representatio alleviate a particular problem.
n in Films Vicarious conditioning positive reinforcement characters receive from
these behaviours makes viewers more likely to initiate.
AO2 The Office for Substance Abuse Protection (OSAP) has developed ethical
guidelines about drugs for writers.
Ethical Recommend that should show illegal drugs as `unhealthy and harmful'.
Guidelines Present as a disease recommend abstinence.
Shows drugs in films must influence viewers and that a successful method of
prevention has been developed.
AO1 TV interventions are particularly effective in tackling problem drinking.
Kramer et al. assessed `Drinking Less? Do It Yourself!', a five week television
Addictive Found intervention group was more successful in achieving low-risk drinking
Behaviour than the control group.
Television and internet has also been used for anti-drug campaigns, however
there is little evidence for the effectiveness of these.
AO2 Johnston et al. found youths who watched anti-drug campaign ads got the
impression that their peers were using marijuana.
Peer Norms More likely to initiate themselves.
This supports social identity theory, in that individuals follow the social
norms of their peer groups.
Campaigns like this can therefore normalise drug use and encourage it.
AO2 Most evidence about the media's effect on addictive behaviour is
Correlations Shows depictions of drugs/alcohol in films and television are related to
However, this does not show a causal relationship between exposure and
addiction, meaning there could be a third factor such as whether significant
Must have 2 detailed points of AO1 and 4 detailed evaluative points of AO2 = 12 marks