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SociologyMass Media
Mass Media Defined
Technology | Institutions and organisations | Products of Institutions
Traditional: Media communicates uniform message to large homogenous audiences.
New: Screen based digital text ­ integration of images, text and sound.
The Power of the Media
Key Statistics: 96% homes have digital TV | 76% broadband | 92% mobile phone| 47% internet via
Information Access: Internet provided more information in last 30 years than last 5000 years.…read more

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SociologyMass Media
Popular and High Culture and the Changing Distinction
Popular Culture: Mass/low culture | Mass produced, trivial with no artistic value. | `Everyday culture' |
Linked to passive, uncritical entertainment | Candyfloss Culture ­ speaks to everyone in general but no
one in particular.
High Culture: Exempt from ordinary life | Fine art/Ballet | Found in galleries, aimed at upper/middle
class | E.g. `Serious' political news, Shakespeare and Monet.…read more

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Culture Ideology of Consumerism (Sklair)
Media blur the difference between info. ­ entertainment ­ promotion | Sell values and lifestyles with
products ­ mainly western consumerist lifestyles | Encourages dominant ideology worldwide | e.g.
companies such as Apple/Coca-Cola.
Media Generated Culture Industry
Worldwide consumers have shared popular culture | view the same globalized content | share same
foods/tech/and aspects of life.
Ritzler: Shows companies and brands operate on a global scale e.g.…read more

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SociologyMass Media
Influences and Pressures Resulting in Construction of News
Influence of Owners: Direct instructions to editor | Journalists/editors adopt self-censorship to avoid
upsetting owner ­ ignores stories or create a bias report.
Globalization: Mainstream news can no longer rely on attention of audiences ­ 24/7 rolling news and
global access.
Technology: Providers must complete with as new media increases access and 24/7 flow.
Citizen Journalism: Alternative sources overcome bias and suppression of stories -
| Cit.…read more

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Processes of influencing and deciding what knowledge public gains access to. Philo's study showed
that oppositional content was not aired ­ threat to social order and exposes economic corruption.
Norm Setting
Reinforces conformity to social norms ­ those who don't conform get undesirable treatment ­ media
define what is `normal'.
The Presentation of News
Presentation influences attention given ­ some `breaking news' other stories in sidebar | Hidden bias
e.g. the office/employers contrasted with workers on strike in the street.…read more

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Pluralists:Need for audience and profit mean journalists often expose corrupt and injustice | New
media and Cit. J exposes alt. views across the globe.…read more

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SociologyMass Media
Media Representations and Stereotyping
Conform to and create stereotypes | acts as a code as audience understand quickly and easy.
Media Gaze: Media not equally represented as through the eyes of the producer ­ white middle class
Symbolic Annihilation: Groups trivialised, condemned or given limited representation.
Gauntlett: People reject representations but they become reality when media is only source.
GMG: Representations formed in context of dominant ideology | hegemony reinforced.…read more

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Deviants and Law breakers | Threat to culture | Causing social problems | illegal immigrants and welfare
scroungers | Limited talents | having international problems ­ e.g. Africa.
Eastern Europeans: Blamed for British problems such as taking jobs and benefits - Such stereotypes
and stories reinforce racial prejudice using minority ethnic groups as scapegoats for British problems.
Islamophobia : Muslims stereotyped as threat to social values and public safety | 91% of articles about
Muslims neg. ­ threaten `British values' ­ Hijab/Arranged marriage.…read more

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Male Representations
The Joker ­ laughs to avoid srs things | The Jock | Strong Silent Type | The Big Shot | The Action Hero |
The Buffoon.
Theoretical Explanations of Stereotyping
Pluralists: Occurs because audiences `want' it.
|Simple effective way to satisfy both audience and
Liberal Feminists: Product of under rep. in industry | Rep. will change with a more equal role divide.…read more


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