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Marxists see the state as their means by which the capitalist ruling
class maintain their dominant position
· Structural perspective- they look at the way society is structured e.g.
the church, legal system, education system and the media.
· It is a conflict view of society
· Function of education is to train younger members of society to
become robotic workers for the bourgeoisie.
· Marxists would like to see better paid and more interesting jobs that
people perform due to their talents and sharing and co-operation.
· Children should learn through experience and fun. C/A why would
they want to learn if they could just have free-reign of what they
could do? This could lead to society struggling economically.
· Their views were first written in the 1800's so are out of date. They
also talk about work like how it was in factories etc so not up to date.…read more

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How Marxists view
creates long
shadow over
Core of society
Law everything
Money £££
Capitalism leaves
the infrastructure
and enters the
superstructure into
different sections
of society
Education…read more

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Althusser 1971 FRANCE
· According to Althusser, the state consists of 2 elements, both of which keep
the bourgeoisie in power:
THE REPRESSIVE STATE APPARATUS (RSA): these maintain power by
threat or force. They include the police, army and courts. They are
materialistic and repress the proletariat/ working class
THE IDEOLOGICAL STATE APPARATUS (ISA): these maintain power by
mind control and by controlling peoples thoughts and beliefs. These include
religion (not so apparent recently), media and education (most influential).
· Althusser believes that education is an important ISA as it performs 2
· It reproduces class inequality by transmitting it from generation to
generation by failing each working class pupil.
· Education also justifies class inequality ideology as it persuades workers to
accept that inequality is inevitable and they deserve a lower down position
in society. If they accept this inequality )especially at a younger age) they
will not fight against capitalism.…read more

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Bowles and Gintis 1976 USA
· Schools create a subservient workforce:
SUBSERVIANCE- schools reward followers and punish creative and aggressive students. This corresponds with work.
This prepares you for working life.
HIERARCHY- schools are structured very clearly. This is similar and prepares pupils for working life e.g. head teacher
at school is like boss at work, you must respect them and listen to what they say.
MOTIVATION- Education is a competition for materialistic rewards e.g. certificates. This means that they are constantly
pushing themselves to get the next highest reward which then prepares them for an unfulfilling job in the future
and for then to aim for more external rewards- wages. Very rare for schools to have intrinsic rewards e.g.
satisfaction/ doing a subject for the fun of it.
FRAGMENTED KNOWLEDGE- schools are always timetabled which means that we are told when we do certain things
by teachers or bells. This prepares us for having a job where we are told where to be and when and listen to the
boss. This uncertainty in the child means that they become dependant on the teachers around them making it
easier for society to mould them into workers.
SURPLUS KNOWLEDGE- we are taught lots of information during education to pass exams but most of this knowledge
is useless in the future. The higher qualifications we get, the higher paid job we get (theoretically). This creates
competition in the workplace/ school and therefore sorts out the higher paid people from the lower paid people of
the future
LEGITIMISE INEQUALITY- School say that all pupils start off equally but do they really? Evidence from studies show
that depending mostly on social class we can either start ahead or behind of others in our class. This hierarchy
corresponds with who has the higher paid jobs in the workplace. It is said that a hidden curriculum is taught at
schools. This is unknown by pupils. It teaches us how to behave, have the correct values and beliefs for success
The believe that schooling helps to produce the obedient workers that capitalism needs. Education also stunts
personality development as it doesn't let people express themselves.
Bowles and Gintis did their own study. They used 237 new York students to find out what kind of personality was
rewarded in education and which personalities weren't. they found out that schools were rewarding the passive,
compliant type of pupil which proves that they are trying to create pupil and later on workers that comply to
authoritive figures.
They believe that meritocracy doesn't exist as people with higher paid jobs usually had a better background than
actually putting in the hard work.…read more

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The Correspondence Principle
Schools in Capitalist Society Work in Capitalist Society
1 Hierarchy of authority among hierarchy of authority in the
teachers and between teachers workplace
and students
2 Alienation through students' Alienation through workers'
lack of control over education lack of control over production
3 Extrinsic satisfaction instead extrinsic satisfaction e.g. for
of the work itself the wage instead of the
satisfaction from the job
4 Fragmentation and Fragmentation of work
compartmentalism of throughout the division of labour
knowledge into unconnected into small, meaningless tasks
5 Competition and divisions competition and divisions
among students among the workforce
6 Levels of education: levels of occupational structure
lower levels of education and lower levels of work, closely
fewer studies, close supervision. supervised given orders
higher levels of education
trusted higher levels of work internalised
self directed learning company goals self supervision…read more

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