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The term material deprivation refers to poverty and a lack of material necessities such as
adequate housing and income.
A term referring to lack of income and/or poverty which may result in disadvantage
to children educationally because their parents cannot afford educational assets
which the better-off take for granted, such as books, computers or visits to
In general educational attainment raises with family income E.g. children in well-off families
are likely to do better rather than low income families. Many researchers see material
deprivation, lack of money, and things money can buy as a major cause of educational
These would come from a Marxist perspective (class structure) functionalists are also
interested because for society to be functional it has to be meritocratic E.g. the outcome of
individuals is based on hard work and ability.
Halsey et al 1980
Halsey based their study on Oxford Mobility study. The oxford mobility study was famous
because it was a longitudinal study. It was based on there broad social groups. They found
that 3 quarters of the working-class left school at the minimum school learning age. A major
reason for this was money. This was a problem for working-class parents they have provided
the children between 16-18 and secondly the children are not contributing. Poverty leads to
low self esteem and insecurity and social exclusion.
The government has introduced a maintenance (EMA)
Due to the early drop for the working class the government has raised the age to
stay into school to 17 years old.
Neets contribute to social problems.
Compensatory Education (Social Policy)
To make up or what may be lacking from their home life
This is the educational priority area scheme
Holelsy says not enough money is being spent on this stuff.
However, there are other criticisms; holesy says all these policies are attempts to
repair the child, not the school/environment.
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Cultural Deprivation Vs Material Deprivation
Cycle of Deprivation
1) You live in poverty
2) A baby is born
3) The baby fails in school
4) Their life chance is low
5) So they live in poverty
Re-cap on Cultural Deprivation
It is a pathological theory e.g. it seeks to blame the victim. It's applied both to class and
Blame in cultural deprivation falls on parents for not being interested enough (JWB Douglas).
They speak in the restricted code (Bernstein).
Also falls on society i.e.…read more
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By frowning attention on the shortcomings of the pupil's the school system and
teachers from any blame.
4. Other writers have noted cultural differences between working class families and
schools by have drawn different conclusions.
5. Rather than viewing working class families as deficient in culture, they have seen
them as deficient in power.
6. In this view working class children do not so much fail at school-they are failed by the