Marxism & Education

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  • Created on: 13-01-13 14:04
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Marxism
Marxist Perspectives
Named after Karl Marx (1818-1883).
Two main classes in society- the ruling class and the subject class.
Capitalists, those who own private industry form the ruling class.
Workers, those who sell their labour in return for wages form the subject class.
According to Marx, the ruling class exploit the subject class- they gain at the expense of the workers.
Education & Ideology
Althusser argues that no class can hold power by the use of force.
Argues that in modern society the education system has largely replaced the church as the main agency for ideological control.
Schools transmit an ideology which states that capitalism is just and reasonable.
Schools prepare pupils for their roles in the workforce.
Argues that ideology in capitalist society is fundamental to social control.
He sees the main role of education as transmitting this ideology.
Correspondence Theory
Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis claim that there is a close correspondence between the social relationships in the classroom and those in the
workplace.
This correspondence is essential for social reproduction.
School & Workplace
Schools are based on hierarchies.
Teachers give orders pupils are expected to obey.

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Pupils have little control over their work, over the curriculum they follow.
This corresponds to their later experience of lack of control in the workplace.
Pupils are rewarded because punctuality, obedience and hard work.
Young people get little satisfaction from their education.
They are motivated largely by external rewards such as educational qualifications.
This is reflected in the workplace, workers are motivated by external rewards such as pays.…read more

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Counter-School Culture- a rejection of the norms and values of the school and their replacement with anti-social norms and values.
Willis did not find a simple correspondence between school and work. Nor did he find that the lads were shaped by the educational system.
The lads rejected school and created their own counter-school culture. This prepared them for low-skill, low-status jobs they were to end up in.
School was good for a laugh and not much else.…read more

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Business takeover of schools
Glenn Rikowski (2002, 2005) argues that they are still relevant, Marxist views.
He claims that education is becoming increasingly privatised as more and more aspects of education e.g. school dinners, are being subcontracted to
private industry.
Rikowski sees this as the beginning of business takeover of schools.
He argues that education will become like any other private company and its main concern will be to produce profit.
Evaluation
Marxist sees education in a negative light.…read more

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Schools do reward hard work, conformity and obedience.
Some students who learn to live with that they see as the boredom of school is prepared for the monotony of low-skill jobs.
Critics argue that Rikowski has gone too far with his claim that education is heading for privatisation.
While some services are being subcontracted to private sector, there is little or no evidence that governments in the UK intend to privatise the
educational system as a whole (Hatcher, 2005).…read more

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