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Marxist Perspectives
Named after Karl Marx (1818-1883).
Two main classes in society- the ruling class and the subject class.
Capitalists, those who own private industry form the ruling class.
Workers, those who sell their labour in return for wages form the subject class.
According to Marx, the ruling class…

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Pupils have little control over their work, over the curriculum they follow.
This corresponds to their later experience of lack of control in the workplace.
Pupils are rewarded because punctuality, obedience and hard work.
Young people get little satisfaction from their education.
They are motivated largely by external rewards such…

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Counter-School Culture- a rejection of the norms and values of the school and their replacement with anti-social norms and values.
Willis did not find a simple correspondence between school and work. Nor did he find that the lads were shaped by the educational system.
The lads rejected school and created…

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Business takeover of schools
Glenn Rikowski (2002, 2005) argues that they are still relevant, Marxist views.
He claims that education is becoming increasingly privatised as more and more aspects of education e.g. school dinners, are being subcontracted to
private industry.
Rikowski sees this as the beginning of business takeover of…

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Schools do reward hard work, conformity and obedience.
Some students who learn to live with that they see as the boredom of school is prepared for the monotony of low-skill jobs.
Critics argue that Rikowski has gone too far with his claim that education is heading for privatisation.
While some…


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