Manchuria & Abyssinia: Where it all went wrong for the league

Revision presentation outlining the successes & failures of the league in the 1920s, then describes the Manchurian crisis as well as the Abyssinian crisis. Describes the impact on the league and other consequences. Suitable for GCSE History.

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Slide 1

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Manchuria & Abyssinia:
Where it all went wrong for
the league of nations…read more

Slide 2

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The league so far...
Had been set up due to the Treaty of Versailles
Was meant to keep world peace, help out
countries by solving disputes peaceably and
helping them economically too, and ensure the
terms of the treaty were kept to.
Had mixed success in the 1920s:
Successes included the aaland islands (1921), upper
silesia (1921), the economical crisis of austria &
hungary (1923) and the greek-bulgarian incident
(1925), plus humanitarian aid work
Failures included Vilna (1920) and corfu (1923), plus
the signing of various treaties without its consent.…read more

Slide 3

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Manchuria, 1931-3
Manchuria seen as part of China, but Japan owned the South
Manchurian railway. Manchuria was an area rich in resources and
coveted by both nations.
In 1931 officers of the Kwantung Army of Japan staged an explosion
on the railway line, near Mukden. This became known as the
Mukden incident.
Japan blamed China, and invaded
The league issued an investigation, and in 1932 the Lytton
Commission condemned Japan
However some members of the league sympathised with Japan's
efforts to restore order on the region
After the league decided Japan was wrong, Japan left the league
Due to the distance, it was very difficult to impose any kind of
Japan went on to take over other areas of China…read more

Slide 4

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Abyssinia, 1935
Italy, after seeing the success of Japan in the
Manchurian crisis, decided to invade Abyssinia
They had two main motivations: 1) To seek revenge for
defeat in a previous war 2) To gain more colonies in
Africa- most other nations had colonies there, why
shouldn't they? It was located next to existing Italian
colonies and would be an easy target.
Both Italy & Abyssinia were members of the league
France and Britain would have to stand strong in order
to make Italy back down, but were reluctant as they saw
Mussolini as a strong potential ally against Germany…read more

Slide 5

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Abyssinia, continued...
Laval (French foreign minister) and Mussolini
met in Rome. They made secret agreements-
Laval tried to win Mussolini's friendship, but
Mussolini interpreted this as an offer to do what
he liked in Abyssinia. Hoare (GB foreign
secretary) tried to warn Italy off invading
Italy invaded 3rd October 1935, and met no real
competition from the poor Abyssinian forces.
League condemned Italy and imposed
sanctions, but did not close the Suez Canal,
allowing supplies to still reach the Italian army…read more

Slide 6

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The Hoare-Laval Plan
Agreed Abyssinia would be split up, with Italy
gaining fertile lands.
Abyssinia woul dbe much smaller, and consist
of barren lands, plus the "corridor for camels"
Details of the plan were leaked, and Hoare &
Laval had to resign
But damage had been done- everyone knew GB
& FR had been working to undermine the
league's apparently tough stance…read more

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Slide 8

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Slide 9

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