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Issues of a high population
Pressure on housing- Over crowding in schools- poor quality
homelessness ­ slums Limited opportunities
Environmental issues Lack of jobs
Pollution Unemployment
Food insecurity Poverty
Water insecurity High crime rates
Water overuse/misuse Exploitation of the most vulnerable
Health care over crowding Lack of access to services
Poor sanitation for the poorest Unequal distribution
Spread of disease Low productivity…read more

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Ester Boserup
Published in 1965, optimistic economist
`Necessity is the mother of invention'
If resources deplete or demand rises, people will find
new technologies allowing them to increase supply
Examples: Green Revolution and GM…read more

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Ester Boserup ­ Genetic modification
GM crops use bio technology to alter their
make up with the intention of increasing BT maize (corn)
yields, resisting disease and climate Is an example of negative GM
After maize was grown farmers
90% of GM comes form USA, Brazil,
Argentina, India and China
reported chest infections and
breathing problems
52% of Soybeans and 31% of global maize
is GM The maize was found to
Majority of GM is used to feed cattle to produce pesticides
meet the demands increasingly
Westernised diets…read more

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Ester Boserup ­ Genetic modification
Positives Negatives
Increases production One `superbug' will wipe out entire
Food can be made more
nutritious- less needs to be Encourages monoculture
eaten- e.g. golden rice Loss of diversity
Crops can be made pest Cross pollination between GM and non
resistant, disease resistant GM ( people have been fined for `using'
GM seeds without their knowledge
Crops can be grown in non-
Toxic and allergic reaction possible
native areas e.g. tomatoes in
colder areas Dependency- failure = famine…read more

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Ester Boserup ­ Green revolution
India needed to increase food
production to feed a growing The HYV(high yield varieties) were bred
population (4 mill died during famine) selectively bred in Mexico
During WW2 they were under British Seeds were then sold to India- (new seeds
rule- `left' as British were fighting a war need to be brought yearly)
The country was food hoarding ­ HYV's were used in intensive farming which
waiting to sell it for a better price- while lead to monoculture
people starved
High levels of irrigation and fertilisers were
Reliance on unpredictable monsoon, needed
high poverty and high population
Effective but expensive
growth were worsening issues.
Destroyed soils…read more

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