First 523 words of the document:
"Malaria is preventable and curable for most, but not all". To what extent do you agree with
This report attempts to examine the differences between different methods of prevention and treatment in malarial
countries, including rate of success, time, cost and other socio-economic factors.
What is Malaria?
Malaria is a blood disease caused by an infection with a parasite called Plasmodium that is
passed to people through mosquito. When it bites an infected person, the mosquito sucks up
blood containing the parasite, which may then be passed on to the mosquito's next victim.
There are four different strains of malaria protozoa (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium
vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae) and each has a slightly different effect on the sufferer. However the main
symptom of malaria is a fever that occurs in regular episodes, with sweating and shivers, as well as exhaustion due to anaemia.
Other typical symptoms associated with Malaria include headaches, vomiting and other flu-like characteristics.
Where is Malaria found? Nowadays
Malaria is found throughout the tropical and
sub-tropical regions of the worlds and causes
more than 300 million acute illnesses and at least one
million deaths annually. Approximately 100 countries
in the world today have some form of malaria;
almost half of all cases are located in
sub-Saharan Africa. 90% of deaths due to malaria
occur in sub-Saharan Africa, mostly among children
under the age of five.
Who is most at risk?
Approximately half of the world's population is at risk of
malaria. Most malaria cases and deaths occur in
sub-Saharan Africa. However, Asia, Latin America, and to a lesser extent the Middle East and parts of Europe are also affected.
In 2011, 99 countries and territories had on going malaria transmission.
Specific population risk groups include:
Young children in stable transmission areas who have not yet developed protective immunity against the most severe
forms of the disease;
Non-immune pregnant women as malaria causes high rates of miscarriage and can lead to maternal death;
Semi-immune pregnant women in areas of high transmission. Malaria can result in miscarriage and low birth weight,
especially during first and second pregnancies;
Semi-immune HIV-infected pregnant women in stable transmission areas, during all pregnancies. Women with
malaria infection of the placenta also have a higher risk of passing HIV infection to their newborns;
People with HIV/AIDS;
International travellers from non-endemic areas because they lack immunity;
Immigrants from endemic areas and their children living in non-endemic areas and returning to their home countries to
visit friends and relatives are similarly at risk because of waning or absent immunity.
Prevention and Treatment Methods.
The most important and obvious step of prevention would be to avoid being bitten by an infected mosquito. Using an effective
insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and full-length trousers and staying in accommodation with screen doors and closing
windows would all aid in preventing an the disease being spread.
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History of Malaria
The first recorded treatment dates back to 1600, when the bitter bark of the Cinchona tree in Peru was used by the native
Peruvian Indians. By 1649, the bark was available in England, as "Jesuits powder," so that those suffering from "agues" might
benefit from the chemical substance quinine, which it contained.…read more
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Lifestyle choices have to be changed; domestic activities of the people have to be adapted to avoid being infected.
For example drying of farm produce, cooking and washing are normally done outside the rooms.
Higher birth rates in families because parents have to accept that there are high infant mortality rates due to malaria so
as to maintain family numbers. In Niger the crude birth rate is 50 compared to 12.57 in the UK.
A child dies every minute in Africa due to malaria.…read more