Lung and Heart Disease

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  • Tuberculosis
  • Asthma
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis
  • Emphysema
  • Risk Factors/Lifestyle
  • Atheroma
  • Aneurysm
  • Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
  • Thrombosis
  • Risk Factors/Blood Cholesterol
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Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.
Symptoms ­ persistent cough, chest pains, tiredness, loss of appetite, weight loss, coughing up blood,
wasting away, death.
Transmitted by aerosol droplets from infected's coughs + sneezes.
How it works
1.) Bacteria breathed in. Invade epithelial cells of the alveoli and bronchioles.
2.) Bacteria multiply to form lumps called tubercles. Bacteria = alive but dormant.
3.) Tubercles = inflammatory response by white blood cells. Creates scar tissue.
4.) Delay of months/years bacteria emerge from tubercles. Begin multiplying inside cells, killing them.
5.) Alveoli get destroyed making gas exchange difficult + causing cough.
6.) TB bacteria can spread through the blood stream to other organs.
Heaf Test small device, 6 needles, pressed onto skin, needles carry tiny amount of tuberculin protein.
Wait 1 week. Large reaction = likelihood of TB. Normal reaction = natural immunity. No reaction =
need vaccine.
Mantoux test tuberculin protein injected into skin. 48 hours later. See results above.
XRays confirm diagnosis, can see scar tissue.
Treatment combination of antibiotics. Usually takes 6 months.
Reasons for almost complete eradication
Improved health + hygiene.
Improved diet.
Pasteurisation of milk and improved animal husbandry.
Developments in antibiotics.
Caused by allergic response to allergens in environment. Allergens include pollen, faeces of dust mites
animal fur. Other factors include polluting gases, exercise, cold weather, infection + stress.
Symptoms ­ difficulty breathing, wheezing, tight chest, coughing.
Transmitted by ­ Asthma isn't infectious.
How it works ­
1.) Allergens trigger inflammatory response by immune system. White blood cells release histamines ca
muses of bronchioles to contract, narrowing the airway.
2.) Epithelial cells secrete mucus, further blocking the airway.
3.) Constricted bronchioles slow ventilation, reducing gas exchange + cellular respiration throughout the
4.) Constricted bronchioles cause breathing difficulties as lungs try to loosen the build up of mucus.
How To Treat Inhaling drugs which relax the bronchioles. Antiinflammatory drugs.
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Caused by ­ inhalation of fine dust particles or chemicals, usually over a long period of time.
Symptoms shortness of breath
Transmitted by isn't infectious
How it works
1.) Particles inhaled. Causes inflammatory response.

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Results in growth of fibrous scar tissue around alveoli.
3.) Scar tissue reduces alveoli elasticity + compresses them, reducing air flow + gas exchange.
Extra information ­
Pulmonary fibrosis is known as an occupational disease because the causes are generally found in work
environments. Some of the following are the main causes.
Coal dust
Silica dust
Mould spores in hay
Caused by smoking generally.
Symptoms severe breathing difficulties resulting in inability to do exercise.
Transmitted by isn't infectious
How it works
1.…read more

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Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)
Definition ­ refers to a reduced supply of oxygen to the cardiac muscle. Results from a blockage in the
coronary arteries.
Where the blockage is ­
1.) If the blockage occurs close to the junction of the coronary artery and aorta the heart stops beating as
blood supply is completely cut off.
2.) If the blockage is further along symptoms are milder as a smaller area becomes oxygen deprived.…read more


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