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Slide 1

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The long profile of a river illustrates the changes in the attitude of the course of the
river from its source, along the entire length of the channel, to the river mouth. The
gradient is steeper in the upper course and becomes progressively smoother
towards the mouth, Irregularities frequently occur which result in rapids, waterfalls
and lakes. There may be marked breaks or changes in the slope, known as knick
points which are the product of rejuvenation. Rejuvenation occurs either when the
sea level falls or when the land surface rises.…read more

Slide 2

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Vertical erosion ­ Occurs mostly in steep rocky, upland areas. The geology of
the river bed will affect the speed at which it occurs,
· Weathering ­ is the erosion of Earth's rocks, soils and minerals through contact
with the planet's atmosphere,
· Headward erosion ­ is a fluvial process that lengthens a valley, or a stream by
erosion at the valley head,
· Boulders creates friction slowing down the rate of flow,
· Steep gradient, Narrow v-shaped valley, pot-holes, interlocking spurs, waterfalls,
rapids, gorges and large boulders.…read more

Slide 3

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Lateral Erosion ­ Occurs mainly where the river gradient is less. The strength of
the bed and banks will affect the rate of erosion.
·Transportation ­ Sedimentary material that has been loosened by erosion or
washed into rivers from the valley sides may be carried along the river in this
process.
·Asymmetrical channel
·Floodplain, truncated spurs, meanders, and river cliff/slip-off slope…read more

Slide 4

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Transportation
·Deposition ­ the depositing of sediment along the river bed,
· Friction is reduced, so greater velocity
·Wide, smooth channel
·Braiding - successive division and rejoining of river flow
·Ox-bow lakes, large floodplain. Terraces, levees, and deltas…read more

Slide 5

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