Linguistics Terms

Linguistics terms for English language & Literature students. Study them all they are useful for the exams! Good Luck :)

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  • Created on: 11-02-12 12:35
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Linguistics Terminologies
Metaphors are no mystery
1. Allegory
(n.,)a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms figurative treatment of
one subject under the guise of another.
2. Analogy
(n.,)a similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based:
3. Catachresis
(n.)misuse or strained use of words, as in a mixed metaphor, occurring either in error or for rhetorical effect.
4. Metaphor
(n.)a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in
order to suggest a resemblance, as in "A mighty fortress is our God."
5. Simile
(n.)a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared, as in "she is like a rose."
6. Vehicle
(n.)the thing or idea to which the subject of a metaphor is compared, as "rose" in "she is a rose."
7. Tenor
(noun)the subject of a metaphor, such as ?she? in ?She is a rose?
8. Parable
(noun)a short allegorical story designed to illustrate or teach some truth, religious principle, or moral lesson

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From Asterisk to Umlaut: 40 Common Linguistic Terms
1. Ambiguous
(adjective)an expression exhibiting constructional homonymity or having two or more structural descriptions
2. Syntax
(noun)the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language
3. Semantics
(noun)the study of linguistic development by classifying and examining changes in meaning and form
4. Acquire
(verb)to achieve native or native like command of a language
5. Meaning
(noun)the cultural correlate, reference, or denotation of an expression separate from linguistic content
6.…read more

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Acquisition
(noun)the act or process of achieving mastery of a language
11. Strident
(adjective)characterized acoustically by noise of relatively high intensity, as sibilants, labiodentals and uvular
fricatives, and most affricates
12. Anterior
(adjective)distinctive feature analysis articulated in the region extending from the alveolar ridge to the lips alveolar,
dental, labial
13. Asterisk
(noun)a star (*) used to mark utterance that would be considered ungrammatical or otherwise unacceptable by
native speakers of a language
14.…read more

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Typology
(noun)the classification of languages according to structural features such as patterns of phonology, morphology,
and syntax, excluding their histories
22. Informant
(noun
)a native speaker of a language who supplies utterances and forms for one analyzing or learning the language
23. Lexeme
(noun)a unit within a language, such as a word or base vocabulary item
24. Signified
(noun)the thing or concept denoted by a sign
25. Idiolect
(noun)a person's individual speech pattern
26.…read more

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Language death
(noun)the complete displacement of one language by another in a population of speakers
33. Matrix sentence
(noun)a sentence in which another sentence is embedded: In 'The man who called is waiting,' 'The man is waiting'
is a matrix sentence
34. Citation form
(noun)the spoken form a word has when produced in isolation, such as for illustration, as distinguished from the
form it would have when produced in the normal stream of speech
35.…read more

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Irony and related concepts
1. Dramatic irony
(n.)irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped
by the characters in the play.
2. Irony
(n.,)the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning:
3. Sarcasm
(n.)harsh or bitter derision or irony.
4. Sardonicism
(adj.)characterized by bitter or scornful derision mocking cynical sneering:
5. Satire
(n.…read more

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Passive
(adjective)noting or pertaining to a construction similar to this in meaning
3. Present
(adjective)noting an action occurring at the moment of speaking
4. Determined
(adjective)predictable from its surrounding context
5. Nominal
(adjective)functioning like a noun
6. Conjunction
(noun)words distinguished in many languages by their function as connectors between words, phrases, clauses,
or sentences and, or, but, because
7. Subordinate
(adjective)acting as a modifier to the main or principle clause in a sentence
8.…read more

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Proper
(adjective)a noun or adjective designating a particular person or thing and written with an initial capital letter
Chicago, Monday, American
15. Prefix
(noun)an affix placed before a base or another prefix
16. Future
(adjective) a verb tense that refers to events in time to come
17. Past
(adjective)designating a tense that refers to events or states in time gone by
18. Order
(noun)the arrangement of the elements of a construction in a particular sequence
19.…read more

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Plural
(noun)pertaining to a member of the category of number, a word has more than one referent
25. Agent
(noun)a noun or noun phrase denoting an animate being that creates the action expressed by the verb
26. Construction
(noun) a group of words or morphemes for which there is a grammar rule
27. Singular
(adjective)indicating that a word has one referent or denotes one person, place, thing, or instance
28. Interrogative
(adjective)en element used to form a question
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Prepositional phrase
(noun)a phrase consisting of a preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object
37. Third person
(noun)used when the speaker refers to anyone other than the speaker or the one or ones being addressed using
the pronouns he, she, etc
38. Dangle
(verb)a modifier without a head or a participle without an implied subject
39. Infix
(noun)affix that is inserted within the body of the element to which it is added
40.…read more

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