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o A new born baby will often enter REM sleep immediately and it is not until they are three
months that the sequence of NREM and REM sleep is established.
o New born babies sleep on average for 16 ­ 18 hours a day and this time is equally divided
between REM and NREM.
o A regular pattern of sleeping and waking is rarely established in new born children, but by
20 weeks infants are mainly awake between 10am and 8pm.
o By the age of 1 children usually sleep for 13 ­ 14 hours with the entire sleep stage cycle
occurring every 45 ­ 60 minutes.
o Between the ages of 5 and 10 total nocturnal sleep drops to around 9 - 10 hours.
o Children between these ages sleep deeply particularly during the first half of the night…read more

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o Pre-teens seem to experience sleep-wake utopia; during the day they are
bursting with energy and at night they sleep soundly and are wide awake and
fully rested from the moment they open their eyes the next day.
o Puberty marks the onset of adolescence as well as sexual pituitary growth.
Hormones are released in pulses during slow wave sleep.
o Melatonin is a hormone that determines the biological clock in every cell
throughout the body; but a decrease in melatonin signals the body to begin
puberty, therefore teenagers may experience a less regular sleep cycle.…read more

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o Tend to start sleeping less and do not experience such deep sleep, although
the majority of people would not notice any real change in their sleeping
o Questionnaire research suggests that 53% of 18 ­ 29 year olds suffer from
daytime sleepiness.
o People in middle age may start to notice a shallowing and shortening of sleep;
there is also increasing signs of fatigue.…read more

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o Women suffer from a loss of hormones due to the menopause and men lose
hormones through the andropause.
o People want to go to bed earlier, suffer more from the effects of sleep
deprivation and also experience a poorer quality of sleep.
o Sleep duration drops to about 7 hours and stage 4 sleep virtually disappears.
These is an increase in the lighter stages of sleep.
o 40% of a group of healthy men and women aged 65 - 88 have some form of
sleep apnoea
o Elderly people seem to rise earlier because their circadian dip is not as
pronounced as that of younger people.…read more


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