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Life Chances and Social Class
Social Exclusion and Inclusion
Savage (2000)

After 1979, Labour purposely avoided talking about class.
Instead they talked about `Social Exclusion'
o Groups such as the: Long term unemployed, single mothers and
people in socially deprived areas are somehow more excluded
(due to lower living standards).…

Page 2

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o Decline in primary and secondary sectors, has led to a decline in
manual workers, and their political identity.
o The service class has led to much more people being upwardly
mobile. Led to an undermining of working class identity.
o More young people in further education
o Work contexts…

Page 3

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Trends in income and wealth
1979-1997 (Tory)- income gap and inequality at its largest since records

Average income rose by 36%

BUT 62% for the top 10%

17% decline for the poorest

2000- Service class earned well above average wage

Manual earned below average wage

2002-2003- top 10%…

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This could be because it is those in the upper middle class who decide
wages, and want to get more, with shares and bonuses etc.

Massive tax reductions has also benefited this group (83% to 40% in
Corporate moral responsibility

Corporations should be more morally responsible for society…

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Department of Health

Working class experience an over proportionate amount of illness.

Generally health has increased over the past 30 years, but the increase
is slower in the working class.

3500 working class babies would survive if it was at the rate of the
middle class.
Class and death rates…

Page 6

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Health gradient is caused by income inequality.

This underlines social cohesion, undermining self esteem etc which
leads to stress.

Availability of social housing has fallen because:

Tory's sold them (`Right to buy')
Investment in schemes has been low, so knew once haven't been

1981= 32% of housing was…

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Woking class do worse in education.

Connor and Dawson 2001

Only 1/5 working class backgrounders went to Uni

Savage and Egerton 1997

Ability does not wipe class advantage

Less than of high ability working class boys made it to the service
class, whereas ¾ of low ability middle class…


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