Life after Death

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Life after Death
Plato was a dualist from 300BC who believed that the soul was distinct from the
body. At the end of life, the soul is set free from the body.
Plato held negative views regarding the body; he saw the body as mortal and the
soul as immortal, and the body is restricting the soul from reaching its true potential;
it is selfish, irrational and focused only on desires.
Tripartite soul
Plato believed that there were three parts to the soul, however these parts could not
be divided. The soul is like a diamond; it is one single concept but has many shapes
and faces.
He holds the view that there are three parts to the soul:
1. Reason ­ reason rules the whole soul, allowing the other two parts to flourish
as they should. It is not just the intellectual faculty that works out what is best
for the human, but also helps motivate. Reason helps to resist desires which
are not in the best interests of people
2. Spirit ­ this is the part of the soul that loves to face and overcome challenges;
it loves victory and honour
3. Desire ­ this is the selfish aspect of the soul; the desire for pleasures,
comforts and bodily satisfactions ­ this part of the soul causes conflict
Plato believes a good person is someone whose soul is properly balanced with
reason in control; reason should guide the soul to enlightenment
He demonstrated the relationship between the parts of the soul through his
Charioteer analogy
Charioteer analogy
The charioteer (which represents reason) is on a journey into the heavens, and he is
in control of steering two horses. The white horse, representing spirit, is travelling in
the right direction of the heavens, while the black horse, representing desire, is trying
to steer the chariot back to Earth.
The charioteer's task is to get the two horses in sync; if he cannot do so then the
horses will lose their wings and the charioteer will be unable to see the forms and
carry on his journey into the heavens.
Four Arguments for the Soul

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The Linguistic Argument ­ the language we use to describe ourselves
suggest a distinction between the body and soul ­ `I' `me' `we' all refer to an
inner, separate reality
The Knowledge Argument ­ Plato believes we have the ability to
understand universals which are unaffected by time and space. Therefore,
there must be something within us which is unaffected by time and space also
which has the ability to understand these universals i.e.…read more

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In judgement, moral people are rewarded and immoral people are punished after
Plato ­ Evaluation
Freud ­ Freud's theory of the unconscious mind is very similar to that of
Plato's tripartite soul.…read more

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Plants only have the faculty of nutrition as they only need to obtain food to stay alive.
Animals have nutrition, perception and desires; some animals are distinguished by
the faculty of locomotion.
Aristotle states that the soul is the efficient cause of the body as it causes movement
and life in the body, and it is the formal and final cause of the body, as it gives form
to the matter of the body and causes growth and development in the body.…read more

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Hick finally asks us to imagine that John Smith's replica reappears as a
resurrected replica in another world which is also inhabited by only
resurrected people ­ some kind of resurrected world
Hick proposes that if we can accept that these situations are logically possible, then
it is logically possible to suggest there is a place in which resurrected replicas
inhabit, and that there is a possibility of life after death.…read more

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Evolution is the only rational theory; it is not our soul which guides us but our genetic
makeup, over time the good genes survive and the bad genes die out.
He contends that death should not be feared and it is merely the `extinguishing of our
consciousness' and will be no different to the time before we were born; this
eliminates the possibility of any immortal souls existing.
Human's self-awareness is not due to the soul but has developed because
self-awareness has evolutionary advantages.…read more

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When the atman is released from samsara, it will have achieved moksha; this
is the ultimate release from rebirth, and leads to union with Brahman
The speed at which a person can be freed from samsara is dependent on
their karma
Disembodied Existence
This is the belief that we can survive without a body.
Richard Swinburne
Swinburne proposes that surviving outside of the body is a logical concept; because
we can imagine it, it is therefore possible.…read more

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Adam had the image of God but he was not in the likeness of God; God deemed
Adam and Eve immature and in need of developing, hence expelling them from the
Garden of Eden ­ they needed to grow into the likeness of God
Irenaeus believes suffering is a necessary part of God's created universe ­ it is
through suffering that human souls are made noble
He believes that even if we see no reason for evil and suffering to exist, we should
understand that…read more


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