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Truly liberal society, a flourishing collection of groups to which people
owed allegiance and in which they could freely participate
Such a healthy civil society would prevent the state from becoming too
powerful. Would act as a balance against the potential tyranny of rule by
Diversity of cultures, religions, ethnic groups, and lifestyles in society is
tolerated and the right
Government by consent-
consent must be a continuous process; people should have regular opportunities
to express their consent or indeed to withhold it.…read more

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Jeremy Bentham regarded the idea of rights as nonsense and called natural
rights nonsense on stilts.…read more

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Liberty requires that they are restrained from encroaching on others
Traditional liberals have believed that such protect can only be provided
by a soverign state, capable of restraining al inidv in society
Negative freedom: classical believe in this
Believe in egotistical liberalism- view humans beings as rationally self
interested creatures. Society is seen as atomistic, composed of a collection
of self sufficient individuals
Believe in negative freedom- free, they are left alone, nor interfered with
or coerced by others.…read more

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Leads the state to become totalitarian
Contemporary neo liberalism
the state should intervene in peoples lives to maintain law and order and to
enforce a particular view of personal morality
the minimal state principle could be applied to economic but not politics in
Social Darwinism
refers to an extreme form of liberalism.
The state is not justified in restricting freedom and its functions should be
reduced to a bare min.…read more

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Believe in positive freedom (discuss this) the chance to achieve self
Mill distinguished between 2 kinds of pleasure, higher and lower. Unlike
Classical lib- he believed that we have the ability to develop out
sensibilities so that they can appreciate high culture
Provides self realization through education and welfare measure to insure
against sickness and unemployment.…read more

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No govt can claim legitimacy form god or from natural. Only authority for
rules can come from the people.
Govt should be limited and must respect peoples natural rights. These
rights being: life, liberty, property and happiness.
Natural law included tolerance and said that man should take into
consideration the interest of others when deciding how to act
Social contract- insists that govt should be established by a contract
between the govt and the governed.…read more

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Rejected the notion that new liberals and traditional conservatives shared
that society was organic and that people were interdependent. Instead he
saw individuals as free and independent of each other
Animal kingdom: social Darwinism applied- there is always competition for
scare resources offered by earth.
He did not advocate someone harming another to get what they want- that
those who are successful should be so at the expense of others.…read more

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Liberals stand for social justice- the free market capitalism did not deliver
justice because it inevitable entails the prospering of the downfall of
each for their own, private property and business, certain people being
suppressed, thrives upon there being a divide in society. Hinders others
freedom and equality
Attitude to freedom-
John Rawls
he wanted to improve the idea of freedom by looking at the need to
prevent excessive inequality
Measures taken to reduce inequality inevitably involve a loss of liberty
e.…read more

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According to rawls `difference principle' large inequalities can be justified. It is
not an evil in itself, but it cannot be tolerated if it disadvantages those at the
lowest point of the economy.…read more


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