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LIBERALISM

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Pluralism
Truly liberal society, a flourishing collection of groups to which people
owed allegiance and in which they could freely participate
Such a healthy civil society would prevent the state from becoming too
powerful. Would act as a balance against the potential tyranny of rule by
majority.
Diversity of cultures,…

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Jeremy Bentham regarded the idea of rights as nonsense and called natural
rights nonsense on stilts.
In the place of natural rights, he proposed what he considered to be more
scientific- that we are motivated by self interest and that these interests
can be defined as the desire for pleasure,…

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Liberty requires that they are restrained from encroaching on others
freedom
Traditional liberals have believed that such protect can only be provided
by a soverign state, capable of restraining al inidv in society


Negative freedom: classical believe in this
Believe in egotistical liberalism- view humans beings as rationally self
interested…

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market is seen to be morally and pratcially superior to govt and any form of
political control
economic intervention is the single most serious threat to indiv liberty
because any intervention by the state will be ineffective because state is
not competent enough, too complex. Leads the state to become…

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Believe in positive freedom (discuss this) the chance to achieve self
realization
Mill distinguished between 2 kinds of pleasure, higher and lower. Unlike
Classical lib- he believed that we have the ability to develop out
sensibilities so that they can appreciate high culture
Provides self realization through education and welfare…

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No govt can claim legitimacy form god or from natural. Only authority for
rules can come from the people.
Govt should be limited and must respect peoples natural rights. These
rights being: life, liberty, property and happiness.
Natural law included tolerance and said that man should take into
consideration the…

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Rejected the notion that new liberals and traditional conservatives shared
that society was organic and that people were interdependent. Instead he
saw individuals as free and independent of each other
Animal kingdom: social Darwinism applied- there is always competition for
scare resources offered by earth.
He did not advocate someone…

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Liberals stand for social justice- the free market capitalism did not deliver
justice because it inevitable entails the prospering of the downfall of
each for their own, private property and business, certain people being
suppressed, thrives upon there being a divide in society. Hinders others
freedom and equality
Attitude to…

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According to rawls `difference principle' large inequalities can be justified. It is
not an evil in itself, but it cannot be tolerated if it disadvantages those at the
lowest point of the economy.
Individual freedom cannot be universally good- can only be allowed if all are free
and have a…

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