Lexis and semantics SUMMARY

A summary on the lexis and semantics framework, more frameworks to come soon. Click on my name for English Language revision tools:

AQA AS English Language B. I owe credit to the Nelson Thornes textbook. 

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It is important to note that all words are dependent on context for their full meaning to be understood.
Lexis can be broken down into morphemes-these are the unit of meaning.
There are four different types of morphemes: free, dependent, bound and grammatical.
Free/independent these morphemes can stand on their own
Dependent/bound these can be attached to other morphemes
Grammatical these give grammatical information-e.g. plurals
Creative these form new words
Semantics refers to the study of meaning and how meaning is created within texts.
Subject pronouns refer to a pronoun that usually occurs as the actor in a verbal process.
Object pronouns are usually affected by a verb process.
Word class Description/function Examples
Noun Names of objects, feelings, attitudes, Table, love, anger, Steve or London.
people or places.
Verb Shows actions, events or states of Jumping, to be, love or believe.
being, feeling or thinking.
Adjective Add detail to nouns The BLUE car.
Adverb Add details to verbs or adverbs. The car drove SLOWLY.
Determiner Positioned in front of nouns to add THE car, A pig or AN apple.
detail or to clarify.
Conjunction Links words, phrases and clauses The dog AND the cat, that's okay BUT,
together. it's me OR the dog, ALTHOUGH it is a
problem, BECAUSE of this misfortunate
Pronoun Replaces nouns and can be used in I, me, you, his, our
cataphoric/anaphoric referencing.
Every noun is a person, a place or a concrete thing, or intangible thing. A noun can fall into certain categories:
1. A common noun that refers generically to people, place or things and so they are all written in lowercase typeface.
2. Nouns can be classified into proper and common: count (concrete (can be touched)/ abstract (unobservable notions
) and noun count (concrete/ abstract). Rediscover grammar by David Crystal
3. A proper noun is much more specific, referring to one and only person, place or thing and written with an initial
capital letter; in some case brands have internal capitals.
4. In compound nouns, they double up to express a whole that has more meaning that its parts. They are sometimes
split using a hyphen and are usually pronounced with the stress on the first syllable.

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E.g. award winner, film star
5. They are also single word compounds which now people no longer think these as compounds but one word.
E.g. raincoat
5. Nouns can also be formed with an adjective (e.g. greenhouse), if they are rearranged then they can sometimes have a
completely different meaning.
6. Nouns which are formed with a gerund (something which is used for doing something), e.g. frying pan.
Many nouns are used after the determiner (a, the, this) to form a noun phrase.…read more

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Type of pronoun Examples
Person I, you, she they
(This type of pronoun refers to actual people. They may
completing actions for example but they may refer to a
particular group).
Possessive My cat, his cat, our cat, their cat.
(This type of pronoun refers to ownership, possess
Reflexive Myself, himself, themselves.
(This is a personal pronoun compounded with -self to show
the agent's action and this affects the agent).
Demonstrative This, these, that, those.
(They are used to verbally point out something).…read more


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