Lenin: 1917-1924

4 page document with bullet point notes on:

  • The problems in Russia in 1917
  • The Cheka
  • Opposition
  • Similarities between Tsars and Lenin
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
  • War Communism and One Party State
  • Kronstadt & New Economic Policy
  • N.E.P downsides
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A2 History 13th October 2010
Tsar Vladmir I? Lenin 19171924
1917 ­ Problems in Russia
As the provisional government had found, the circumstances in Russia in 1917
were unpromising for a new regime
Russia was still involved in WWI
Industrial backwardness and widespread military incompetence had undermined
Russia's war effort
The economy was in complete disarray
Russia had a major crisis on their hands:
o Lack of industrial development
o Poor transport network
o Primitive (early stage of technical development) agriculture
o War
These problems had contributed to the downfall of Nicholas II and Kerensky
Therefore the Bolshevik slogan "Peace, Bread and Land" proved attractive
during 1917, and although the message was simple, achieving those aims would
be complex
As chair of the Sovnarkom (Communist party cabinet), Lenin's main priority was
to strengthen the party's hold on power
In December 1917, the Cheka was created
Leader of the Cheka was Felix Dzerzhinksy
The Cheka was involved in "Red Terror" ­ the campaign of mass arrests and
executions conducted by the Bolshevik government
The most infamous crime committed by the Cheka (almost certainly with Lenin's
approval) was the slaughter of the Tsar and his family in an Ekaterinburg Cell in
July 1918
Lenin ensured that Russia's long awaited Constituent Assembly did not threaten
his position
The Bolsheviks held empirewide democratic elections in November 1917, but
Lenin's worst fears were confirmed
The Socialist Revolutionaries won an absolute majority and the Bolsheviks
secured only a quarter of available seats
When the Constituent Assembly was convened in January 1918 it lasted just 1
day and was then dissolved at gun point by the Red Guard
Lenin's justification was that the Constituent Assembly was merely
representative of the old bourgeoisie system
Chris Cartwright

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A2 History 13th October 2010
Similarities between Lenin and the Tsars
Both employed a political police
Neither had any regard for democracy
Both practiced rigorous censorship
Each wielded dictational power
Both employed a vast and privileged bureaucracy more concerned with helping
themselves than serving the downtrodden people
Treaty of BrestLitovsk
Lenin was conscious of the urgent need to remove Russia from WWI
Failure to deal with this effectively had helped undermine the Tsar and Kerensky
The Treaty of BrestLitovsk (agreed on 3rd March 1918)…read more

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A2 History 13th October 2010
Kronstadt & New Economic Policy
After the Civil War, Lenin's priority was to increase the output of the Russian
economy in order to remedy the wartime slump in industrial production and
widespread starvation in the countryside
In March 1921, there was a rebellion at the Kronstadt naval base.…read more

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A2 History 13th October 2010
Chris Cartwright…read more



Thank you these are really useful. Do you have any thematic notes or notes on each ruler? Thanks!

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