Lenin

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- Put communist theories into
practice by redistributing wealth
Aims of War Communism?
- Help with the Civil War by keeping
towns and the Red Army supplied
with food and weapons
Did War Communism Fail? Yes and no: although it did win them
the civil war and caused much
hardship
1. Peasants were given the Tsars and
Examples of decrees that followed? the Churches land
2. Factories and Industries were put
in the hands of the workers
How did he carry out the promises? Set up The Council of Peoples
Commissars which made a huge
number of decrees
How did Lenin crush opponents in In December 1917 he set up Cheka
the Civil War? (secret police)

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Page 2

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How did Lenin pass his laws now? Using The Congress of Soviets to pass
his laws (as they were majority
Bolshevik)
How did the Cheka maintain this Beating, hanging and shooting of
control? opponents or even just suspects
How long did democracy last in Less than 24hours, the Socialist
Russia? Revolutionaries Assembly was closed
by the Red Army
How was the Loyalty of the Red Army Their families were kept hostage by
Officers made certain? appointing political commissars to
watch over them
On what day…read more

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Nationalism (state control of means of production - mines, factories,
workshops, railways etc)
- Private Trading Banned - shut down all private shops and businesses
What communist theories were out - Compulsory labour for citizens
into practice in War Communism? - Rationing of food
- Grain requisitioned from peasants
- State Control of banking (or payment in any kind - barter included)
What did Lenin believe about his That he was establishing a
dictatorship? dictatorship of the proletariat which
would give way to true Communism…read more

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What did the Bolsheviks do to stop Trotsky quickly created a new Red
the whites? Army of over 300,000 men
- End to requisitioning (peasants could sell their surplus)
- Small industries returned to private ownership, private trading
allowed
What did the NEP change? - Compulsory labour stopped
- Regular taxes introduces (1923)
- 'Minority' nationalities who really made up most of the country were
allowed to bring back their costumes and languages (including religious
buildings reopened)
What did this violence become The Red Terror…read more

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What happened in March 1918? Czech Legion (Whites) seized control
of large sections of the Trans-
Siberian Railway
What happened soon after March Three separate White armies were
1918? marching on Bolshevik-controlled
Western Russia
Admiral Kolchaks forces were
What happened to the Whites destroyed and at the same time the
towards the end of 1919? foreign 'armies of intervention'
withdrew
What opposing group had formed by An unlikely group of anti-Bolshevik
the end of 1918? elements had united in attempt to
crush the Bolsheviks
-…read more

Page 6

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What was Lenins whew in the treaty? If this much had to be sacrificed to
safe guard the socialist revolution in
Russia then so be it
What was so shocking about the No trial was needed so many
terror? innocent people were killed or sent to
labour camps
What was the Bolsheviks attitude in They were ruthless and determined
the Civil War?
What was the Chekas role during the They made sure nobody in Bolshevik
Civil War? territories cooperated with the whites
In March 1921…read more

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What was the united anti-Bolshevik The Whites
group called?
The name given to the harsh
What was War Communism? economic measures (1918 - 21) that
the Bolshevicks adapted during the
Civil War
When and what was the first decree? 8th November 1917 asked for peace
with Germany
When did the Cicil War Begin? By the summer 1918
When was the last major White In the Crimea in November 1920
defeat?…read more

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When was the NEP? 1921 - 29
When was the treaty finalised? What The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was
was it called? finalised in March 1918
When were the Bolsheviks securely in By 1921
control of Russia?
Where were the Bolsheviks strongest Western Russia
in Russia?
- Socialist Revolutionaries
- Mensheviks
- Supporters of the Tsar
Who made up 'The Whites' - Landlords and capitalist who lost money in the
Revolution
- The Czech Legion (Former Prisoners of War)
- Foreign troops from the USA, Japan,…read more

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Who suffered the most during the Fighting was savage in both sides but
civil war? the ordinary workers and peasants
suffered most
Who was put in charge of negotiating Leon Trotsky
the Peace Treaty?
Who was the new Red Army led by? Former Tsarist Officers
Who won the majority vote in the The peasant-based Socialist
1917 elections? Revolutionaries
Why did democracy fail under Lenin? Elections were held however
Bolshevicks did not gain the majority
vote…read more

Page 10

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Why did he feel as if he had to deliver To keep the Bolsheviks in power
this promise?
They did not like the Bolsheviks but if the
Whites won they knew the landlords
Why did peasants prefer Bolsheviks would return and claim their land
to the Whites?
They Whites also generally caused more
suffering to the peasants
- Different groups with different aims (only common aim to beat Bolsheviks)
- Yudenich, Renikin and Kolchaks has no special qualities like Trotskys excellent leading
Why did the…read more

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