Learning Explanations for Addiction

For revision, I made tables for the different explanations of addiction. It's important that you can answer questions about the initiation, maintenance and relapse of all three explanations for smoking and gambling, including AO2 detail.

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Stage Explanation Evaluation
Operant conditioning:
Behaviour providing pleasant experiences ­ repeated. x Behaviour/reward basis can't explain initiation of all types ­ scratch cards
Griffiths ­ rewards physiological (buzz), psychological (near have instant consequences, but sport-based have a longer gap between
Initiation misses), social (praise) or financial (win). behaviour and reward,…

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Addict is motivated to approach gambling due to rewards
but avoid it due to consequences.
Fluctuate between wanting to gamble and not.
Success in avoiding is due to ability to control need for
positive reinforcement.

Stage Explanation Evaluation
Availability of role models:
Kandel and Wu ­ adolescents experiment due to…

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Maintains addiction, making quitting difficult.

Conditioned cues
Hogarth et al. ­ craving increased when cues/stimuli (sight/smell) were
presented relapse.
Cues associated with nicotine (availability, sight, smell) increase
Relapse likelihood of response.

Refusal self-efficacy
Person's belief in ability to succeed in a situation.
Lawrence and Rubin ­ frequent adult smokers have…


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