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Learning Approach applied to gambling and smoking
Reductionist ­ the theory takes a complex human behaviour and attempts to explain it in terms of
contingencies and patterns of reward, and takes no account of individual differences or cognitive processes

Initiation ­ if behaviour produces a consequence that the individual…

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2) Popularity as a positive reinforcement ­ popularity among peers may be seen as a form of positive
reinforcement to the initiation of smoking
Mayeux, 2008: found a positive relationship between smoking at age 16 and boys' popularity two years
later; extremely reductionist view as it ignores individual differences; gender…


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