Slides in this set
· 500,000- 350,000BC Study of fossilised ear bones suggest
ability to understand speech.
· 40,000BC Homo sapiens found in Africa and Europe. Some
believe this is where true language originated.
· 8, 000BC Probable first Indo-European speakers in Turkey.
· 5, 000BC First system of writing, Sumerian, which then
develops into cuneiform script.
· 2,000BC First alphabetic script (ie. Non-pictorial) developed
by Semitic Egyptian workers.
· 1,500BC Oldest surviving Sanskrit texts.
· 400BC Celts spread to England.
· 55BC- Roman military expedition lands in England.…read more
Anno Domini Language
· 43 Roman invasion of England under Claudius.
· 150 Germanic speakers settle in England from the coast of Germany.
· 449 Traditional date for the beginning of Anglo-Saxon Settlement.
· 450-480 First (surviving) Old English (OE) runic inscriptions.
· c700 First manuscript records of OE.
· 871 Alfred becomes King of Wessex and translates from Latin to OE.
· 995 The late Anglo-Saxon bible.
· c1000 Date of the oldest surviving copy of the epic Beowulf.
· 1066 Battle of Hastings; French king takes over England. French is used
in Courts, English by the majority of the natives, Latin in church and Danish
in the Northeast.
· 1348 English replaces Latin in schools (excepting Oxford and Cambridge)
· 1362 English replaces French as the language of the Courts and is used in
Parliament for the first time.…read more
1387 Prologue to Canterbury Tales Chaucer; written primarily
in English in preference to Latin or French.
· 1389 The Wyclef Bible
· 1476 First English book published. Caxton sets up printing press
· 1478 - The Canterbury Tales published.
· 1526 Tyndale Bible
· 1564 William Shakespeare born
· 1582 Mulcaster's Dictionary.
· 1604 Robert Cawdrey's Table Alphabeticall of Harde Words.
· 1611 King James Bible published.
· 1616 Death of Shakespeare.
· 1700 `Thou' becomes unused.
· 1701 - `Do' construction becomes standard.
· 1702 First newspaper, the Daily Courant, published in English.
- Writers capitalised every noun they felt important.
· 1713 Jonathan Swift tried to set up an institution similar to the
Academie Francaise in order to try and deter the inkhorn terms
flooding English.…read more
1755 Jonson's Dictionary of the English Language
· 1762 Robert Lowth's prescriptive grammar book
· 1790 Noah Webster mourns the passing of every
noun being capitalised.
· 1795 Lindley Murray's grammar book published.
· 1911 Concise Oxford Dictionary published.
· 1922 BBC established
· 1928- OED published under James Murray.
· 1938 Photocopying invented.
· 1961 New English Bible published.
· 1994 The internet revolutionises communication
Language at the end of the 16
· U/V interchanges sole example of OE remaining.
· Long and short `s' still written and printed.
· Passive voice in use.
· Relative pronoun, `which', used for people.
· Modal verbs established.
· `-e' inflection still present.
· Vergules no longer in use.
· Possessive apostrophes still absent.
· Assimilation from Greek, Latin etc.
· `Thou' pragmatically implied intimacy.
· 3P sing. present `-eth' and `-s' inflections
· S and V inversion for interrogatives and negatives
· `Do' auxiliary in usage.
· Plural `-en' inflection dropping out of use.
· Double negatives common.
· Adverbs precede verbs.…read more
Adjectives follow nouns.
· Strong verbs take weak past `-ed' inflection.
· No past `do' auxiliary.
· Generic `his' for `its' and `hers'.
· Modal `shall' used for all/will.
· Double superlatives.
· Limited prepositions…read more