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SEMANTIC SHIFTS occur when words expand and contract then settle for meanings very different from the original. Causes:

Political correctness ­ seeks to redress some linguistic bias
Over time old meanings become forgotten
In response to new context for a word eg technology.
As current slang where a particular social…

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Weakening



Broadening




Synecdoche


Narrowing




In addition to creating new words, language users recycle words and change their meaning. Semantic change, or DRIFT, results.




MEDIA, FASHION AND SOCIETY

TECHNOLOGY
PHISHING, for example, is a neologism resulting from technology it has a metaphorical extension relating the activity of fishing to the hope…

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MUSIC AND CULTURE



Linking contextual influences to language change explains many coinages or changes in sematic. These recent words show semantic shift.


CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCES ON CHANGE



TRAVEL AND GLOBALISATION




SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ATTITUDES

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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The peculiarities of English spelling were because: Words had to be clear to read. EG wonder has an "o" because wUnder has too many loops. Writing
had to fit on a page so extra letters were added or omitted at random, especially "e" or double letters. When CAXTON introduced the…

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Historical influences have contributed to English language and therefore given us a mixture of spelling traditions.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, European scholars became interested in the ideas of ancient Greeks and Romans so many new words came into English. One Latin word has given a number of related…

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