Language and power glossary


I have already created the language and technology glossary ages ago and so decided to upload the language and power glossary. 

Language and gender will be available by 16/05/13.

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Allusion Developed themes
Child directed speech This is speech which is aimed at children; examples
include repetition, difference in in initation.
Collocations E.g. `father'
Conditionals These include words such as `if' and they offer
Constraints Ways in which more powerful participants may
block or control the contributions of less powerful
participants, e.g. through controlling the agenda or
Deontic modality They are modal auxiliary verbs which show
degrees of necessity and obligation.
Epistemic modality They are modal auxiliary verbs which show
degrees or possibility, probability or certainty.
Face A person's self-esteem or emotional needs. Brown
and Levinson's face theory.
Face-threatening act A communication act that threatens someone's
positive-or negative-face needs. Brown and
Levinson's face theory.
Formulation The rewording of another's contribution by a
powerful participant to impose a certain meaning
or understanding.
Holding the floor This is when the speaker leaves little or no time for
others to speak out.
Ideology A set of belief systems, attitudes or a world view
held by an individual or groups.
Influential power Power used to influence or persuade others.
Initiating a conversation/changing and controlling This is when you take the lead in a conversation.
Initiation-response-feedback This was introduced by Sinclair and Coulthard, it is
a type of triadic structure that uses further
questions for reformulation.
Instrumental power Power used to maintain and enforce authority.
Lithurgies Chants. Thanksgiving, hymns and psalms.
Leading questions Use of an opinion to ask a question.
Less powerful participants Those with less status in a given context, who are
subject to constraints imposed by more powerful
Management speech This is the use of jargon and the idea of inclusivity
and exclusivity, e.g. thinking outside the box.
Metadiscoursal language This is talking about talk, e.g. `we need to talk
Members' resources Highlighted by Norman Fairclough in advertising,
they are the vast amount of background
knowledge and information that readers use in
order to interpret texts and which may be drawn
on explicitly by text producers.
Motivational discourse This is often used in speech in the classroom and
introduced by Skinner (behaviourism) with the
idea of positive reinforcement to increase the
chances of a behaviour occurring.

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Negative face The need to have freedom of through action and
not feel imposed on. Brown and Levinson's face
Oppressive discourse strategy Linguistic behaviour that is open it's exercising of
power and control.
Parallelism Both in concepts and syntactical structures.
Personal power Those who hold power as a result of their
occupation or role, such as teachers and
employers.…read more


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