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Robin Lakoff
· Women's language lacked real authority compared to men
· Features of women's language-
­ The use of specialised vocabulary centred around domestic chores
­ Precise colour terms
­ Weak expletive terms
­ Empty adjectives
­ Tag questions to show uncertainty
­ More polite forms than men use
­ The use of hedges
­ Intensifiers
· Socialisation played an important role in ensuring that
female language remained less assertive and more insecure…read more

Slide 3

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Dale Spender
· Language is embodying structures that sustain
male power.
· Refers to the view of the male as norm and to
her own idea of patriarchal order. (like
Zimmerman and West)
· Especially difficult to challenge the system,
(way we view world reinforces male power)…read more

Slide 4

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Peter Trudgill
· Across social classes men tended to use more
non standard pronunciation
· Men tended to under report themselves as
using non standard forms even when they did
· Women did the opposite (over reported)
· Male speakers attached a covert prestige to
non standard forms…read more

Slide 5

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Jenny Cheshire
· Supports Peter Trudgill
· Analysed talk of teenagers found that nearly
all cases boys use non standard forms more
than girls did
· Boys found to be members of denser
networks (language converged towards others
language) to show linguistic and social
solidarity…read more

Slide 6

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Zimmerman and West
· 96% of all interruptions in mixed sex
conversation were made by men
· Women had restricted linguistic freedom
· Men sought to impose their dominant status
through applying constraints
· In mixed sex conversation women and men do
not hold equal conversational rights…read more

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