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Difference between speech and writing means writers will create books designed to ease children into
discourse in a gentle way. This is achieved by incorporating
Direct speech people/animals in face to face interaction with or without speech tags
Narration which replicates speech use of noises
Everyday content likely to be experienced within the Childs life
The child is systematically taught letter of the alphabet and how these correspond to the phonemes of
spoken word D O G = DOG. This can help them to decipher unknown words
Look & say
The child is exposed to written texts and gradually learns to identify the shapes of words as a whole
without always breaking them down into phonemes and graphemes. Allows use of textual and
contextual cues to assist reading. Initially we retain the shape of words in our perceptual memory by
recalling bundles of distinctive features than each grapheme.
The graphology of the book is taken into account to place fewer demand on the reader for example more
pictures than text. Monosyllabic words are used as longer words can be difficult for children to
deconstruct. These words are likely to be encountered in everyday language usage "house" such as
concrete nouns which allow pictures to give cues. The sentences are simple as they represent a single
action. Longer complex clauses increase memory load. Active voice because they present an agent and
action in the sequence most commonly found in spoken English.
Substitution if sensible can indicate reading for meaning
Self correction indicates reading for meaning and a learning process taking place.
Omission can show an understanding & anticipation if it is an incidental word however important word
omissions suggest failure in understanding
Insertion visual confusion or constructive
Hesitation = difficult in recognizing next word or phrase, lack of fluency
Reading texts are so children encounter models of correct usage in which they can attempt to imitate
and this becomes literate. They will understand that different styles serve different purposes. Writing
systems all around children from sweet wrappers, tv adverts, name on pictures, this combined with
books shared at home with a loved one provide potential for helping children to achieve linguistic
Early literacy is shaped by the community and home. Schools should recognise literacy experiences ad
stop imposing their own.
Baby & Todler books aim to develop speech development by providing pictures for children to label
objects and network build. They are based around themes using hypernyms to provide children with the
relevant hyponym. Nouns and adjectives are the predominant word class as it increases knowledge of
their immediate environment.
Early story books
Are designed to be read to children by care givers. Contain complicated words and grammatical
structures that children can understand but not read or speak. This is appropriate because children's
understanding is ahead of their ability to produce.
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Reading schemes often have graded vocabulary and syntactical structures. Designed to promote home
school learning connection where the adult takes the role of the teacher by regulating conversation and
focusing activity.…read more
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Types of reading cues
Graphophonic shape of words linked to similar words for instance is a word has experienced the word
"Rough" and they come across "Cough" they can say it. Knowledge of phonemic/graphemic
correspondence allows children to match letters to words to lexis heard in spoken the language E.g.…read more