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Dale Spender.
· Born in Australia, 1943. Key Terms;
· Feminist writer and teacher. · Sociolinguistics ­ How society's
· Published `Man made language' in 1980. view of gender is reflected in
· Genderlect ­ How men and
What were her findings? women speak and if they speak
· `Language reflects a patriarchal society' differently.
· Male superiority is a myth however male power is not. · First wave Feminism - 19/20th
· The myth was made long ago and it has festered in women and men and is century
deeply embedded in our existence and grounding of society. · Second wave Feminism -
· Women `lack' authority, seriousness, conviction and confidence. 1960/70's invention of the
· Her work echoes some of the deficit model. contraceptive pill.
· Margaret Thatcher ­ first
· As men created dictionaries they created a male lexis which is unmarked
female Prime Minister of
language in a `positive semantic space' and the remaining space is therefore Britain.
`negative'. · Female ­ can bear offspring
· Men have the power to order the structure of language, thought and reality, (Anatomic)
and are the central figures. · Male ­ produces gametes
· Men control language and create a classification scheme; plus male and minus (Anatomic)
male. · Feminine ­ likes things
· e.g. `bachelor' can be defined as +male whereas `woman' can be seen as ­ associated with women
· Masculine ­ likes things
· Male is the basic element of language and the sorting system. associated with men
· Women are therefore excluded, exploited and either internalised in male (behaviour)
reality or unable to say anything as they are peripheral. · Feminist ­ progression of
women in society as equals.
Criticisms? · Patriarchal ­ Men in control
· Black and Coward say there are more dimensions that form language. · Political correctness ­ avoid
· e.g. ethnicity and class. language that discriminates
and raises awareness of muted
· It also depends on context, men might be dominant in one situation but not in
another.…read more

Slide 3

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Master is a man in a high
position. Mistress is a
woman seeing a married
Gives a gender man.
bias which is Words where the
Examples are
male. Semantic female form is
Examples are matron/patron, non- used negatively.
chairman and dog/bitch. equivalencies.
fireman. Biased terms.
Example is use
Male words = positive `them' instead of
connotation. `he'.
Semantics. Key The pronoun
Terms. problem.
female words =
negative connotation.
Some argue that
to stop the
Examples are sexism in the
authoress and Marked terms. Non-parallel English language
Male is always
actress. we need to stop
first. treatment.
using pronouns.
A term that's
suffix changes
when it refers to Examples are Mr
a female. & Mrs, husband `He' is used
and wife, when describing
brother and something you
sister. don't know the
gender of.…read more

Slide 4

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Deborah Cameron.
· Called non sexist language policies `lip service' and `cosmetic change' as they
reduced women's oppression but did not actually intrinsically change anything.
· Cameron discovered that women's verbal conduct is important in many
· Women are instructed on how to talk properly, just like how they have been
taught to dress, use cosmetics and other feminine behaviours.
· Cameron describes this proper speech style as `verbal hygiene'
· Cameron claims verbal hygiene is a way to make sense of language and the
symbolic attempt to impose order on the social world.
Norman Fairclough.
· Stated that changing language is not enough on its own, society must also be
· `There is no point arguing about the word chairman being sexist, if you're
missing the point that women are underrepresented in the committee.' ­
Norman Fairclough.…read more

Slide 5

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Serves no role in Shows that only
the plot other than girls are capable
to be the of looking after
girlfriend. children.
Only shown Baby toys
as an
The Love The Mother. targeted at
object to girls.
the male. Interest.
Damsel In Stereotypes of
Asian Women.
Distress. women.
Seen as quiet
and submissive.
Women that
need to be
saved by a
man or Black Women. Latina Women.
Seen as strong Seen as lacking
and intelligence and
independent. loud.
Some female characters are seen to break the stereotypes. Examples are Katniss
Everdeen who leads a rebellion against the government and Gwen Stacy who willingly
puts herself in danger to help others.…read more

Slide 6

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Doesn't easily
Indifferent and show emotion,
emotionless. Takes up other than
everything aggression and
independently and lust.
gains respect. Does not show
weakness of any
Decisive leader The Jock. kind and is fit,
that charms both The Silent athletic and seen
men and women. Rock. as stupid.
Stereotypes of
Defined by success
Will be rash and
and arrogance. Has
The Big Shot. The Joker. funny to gain
traits society deems
acceptance and
as important.
Does things
The comedian type.
independently or
Not serious and has no
gets his henchmen
thoughtful emotions.
to do it for him.
Since youth, boys are empowered to be strong to get respect. The media tells boys and
men to pursue manly traits, like strength, rationalism and bravery and discard traits like
fear, hurt and crying.…read more

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