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Page 1

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Hardy Poetry Notes
I've probably got langformstructure confused in these but should still be
helpful I hope!!

Hap

Lang
"If" ­ questioning from the very first word
Voice of "god" personification as negative, sadistic, overdramatised
character ­ blasphemous?
Uncapitalisation and capitalisation
Coinage ­ "unblooms" ­ reversed ­ hope never lived?…

Page 2

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Litotes lang used to undercut a very serious topic characters discussing
trivial every day things
"Wedded, born, divided" ­ rule of 3

Form
Elegy... but a bit of a weird one :P
Elements of ballad and folktale
Highly narrative

Structure
Terza rima (tripling rhyme)
Cyclical
Almost entirely endstopped
"shift" on…

Page 3

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elegy

Structure
Anapaestic tetrameter
Not, Not, No ­ negatives at start of lines and repeated at end (cyclical)
Regular ­ 8 lines per stanza
Volta in final stanza showing change 2 positive thought

I Look Into My Glass

Lang
Time personified (contrasting with God)
1st person and own voice quoted…

Page 4

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"Uncoffined" prefixation ­ as if stripped of right to a coffin as opposed
to never having one
Africaans terms emphasize how far he is from home "kopie" "veldt"
"Karoo" ­ juxtaposed with "Wessex"
"just as found" = better suited to an object than a person
Simple and natural lang shows…

Page 5

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Hardy considered it to be the best of its kind due to art of concealing art,
story telling but in a way that is accepted (unlike novels. Personal success).
Had a readership and evoked some of his key interests in a restricted way

Lang
A common voice, simple lexis
Sibilance…

Page 6

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Structure
10 syllables but not a set pattern of stressed and unstressed ­ natural
and free instead of forced and restricted
ABBA rhyme scheme (like in petrarchan sonnets, but not a strict
petrarchan sonnet as this is broken in the third stanza)
2 quatrains and a sestet

The Roman Road…

Page 7

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Mainly anapaestic metre but also uses iambs and dactyls. Reflects
dancing? Maybe metre is completely irregular? :P

The Man He Killed

Channel Firing
Humorous but savagely critical war does nothing, will never stop and religion
does nothing to stop it.

Lang
1st person (dead persona)
"sat upright" ­ gruesomely comical…

Page 8

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Caesura disrupted rhythm
Enjambment ­ inevitability

Form
Alternative ballad form ­ tells a real story
Lyricism, song like. Gives a moral, teaching a lesson

Structure
AAABBBCCC tripling rhyme
Poem split into description of sinking ship (1st half) and how it happened
(2nd)
Tension build up until actual event happens in…

Page 9

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Wessex Heights
Loneliness, isolation, solace ­ but welcomed?

Lang
Spiritual undertone links to heaven and creation
Critics aren't his "comrade"s
Highland + lowland = state of mind device literal and metaphorical
Mixing of hard and soft sounds "dubious", "askance" etc
"Mindchains" ­ Blake influence apparently?
"phantoms" but comforting, not negative…

Page 10

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Form
Narrative form
Tells a story

Structure
Iambic pentameter
Repetition in question
Stanzas irregular length (broken up like waterfall itself, pace increases
then calm etc) but regular rhyme scheme
Line length = more regular in some stanzas than others (due to
changing voice?)

The Going "a confused mess" but SO…

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