lang form and structure hardy poems

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Hardy Poetry Notes
I've probably got langformstructure confused in these but should still be
helpful I hope!!
Hap
Lang
"If" ­ questioning from the very first word
Voice of "god" personification as negative, sadistic, overdramatised
character ­ blasphemous?
Uncapitalisation and capitalisation
Coinage ­ "unblooms" ­ reversed ­ hope never lived?
Imagery of "dicing" suggests random
Form
Combination of petrarchan and Shakespearian sonnet ­ traditional
Structure
Rhetorical Qu'n ­ (sown?) ­ frustration @ lack of answers
Almost conversational
Volta (turning point) before "But not so"
Neutral Tones
Lang
Pairs of alliteration
Imagery ­ moment of vision ­ assimilation. Mainly cold positives
neutralised by negatives. Grey ­ free of colour ­ emotionless?
"Rove" "Ago" elongated vowel sounds and monosyllabic
Ellipses shows nostalgia
"bird awing" simile = freedom? Escape? Soaring of emotions?
Lots of masculine endings
"deceives" "receives" heavy rhymes with strong negative cadence
Form
Elegy of relationship
Structure
Cyclical
Loosely iambic but not stuck to
ABBA
Lines mainly endstopped
Syntax of "alive" at start of line and "die" at end
Friends Beyond aka: "life is nothing. Lol."
Lang
"Mothy curfew tide" = unusual imagery dust, faded etc
Noon heat "breathes" ­ personification
Sibilance "Unsuccesses to Success"
Pairs of alliteration and more sibilance in stanza 5
Dialect and colloquialisms emphasizing class difference
Plural personas in script format ­ speak separately and together

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Page 2

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Litotes lang used to undercut a very serious topic characters discussing
trivial every day things
"Wedded, born, divided" ­ rule of 3
Form
Elegy...…read more

Page 3

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Structure
Anapaestic tetrameter
Not, Not, No ­ negatives at start of lines and repeated at end (cyclical)
Regular ­ 8 lines per stanza
Volta in final stanza showing change 2 positive thought
I Look Into My Glass
Lang
Time personified (contrasting with God)
1st person and own voice quoted
Equanimity ­ connotations of mental calmness in difficult situation
"Throbbings of noontide" ­ focuses on death by pulsating with life ­
emphasized by implosive and guttural stop.…read more

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Uncoffined" prefixation ­ as if stripped of right to a coffin as opposed
to never having one
Africaans terms emphasize how far he is from home "kopie" "veldt"
"Karoo" ­ juxtaposed with "Wessex"
"just as found" = better suited to an object than a person
Simple and natural lang shows with clarity what has befallen Hodge
"reign" = power therefore in this death at least, the Boers have won
Form
Ballad
Structure
Iambic
Regular
The Darkling Thrush
Uncharacteristically positive (well, sort of ­ at least…read more

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Hardy considered it to be the best of its kind due to art of concealing art,
story telling but in a way that is accepted (unlike novels. Personal success).…read more

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Structure
10 syllables but not a set pattern of stressed and unstressed ­ natural
and free instead of forced and restricted
ABBA rhyme scheme (like in petrarchan sonnets, but not a strict
petrarchan sonnet as this is broken in the third stanza)
2 quatrains and a sestet
The Roman Road
Different levels of memory explored ­ personal and historical
Lang
Capitalisation of "Now" and "Then"
Form
Structure
Exceedingly regular ­ 8 syllables in almost every line, "The Roman Road"
only 4 for emphasis (also repetition…read more

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Mainly anapaestic metre but also uses iambs and dactyls. Reflects
dancing? Maybe metre is completely irregular? :P
The Man He Killed
Channel Firing
Humorous but savagely critical war does nothing, will never stop and religion
does nothing to stop it.
Lang
1st person (dead persona)
"sat upright" ­ gruesomely comical image
"red war yet redder" imagery ­ red= blood, danger. Prophetic he's
absolutely right.…read more

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Caesura disrupted rhythm
Enjambment ­ inevitability
Form
Alternative ballad form ­ tells a real story
Lyricism, song like. Gives a moral, teaching a lesson
Structure
AAABBBCCC tripling rhyme
Poem split into description of sinking ship (1st half) and how it happened
(2nd)
Tension build up until actual event happens in final line
When I Set Out For Lyonnesse
Lang
It doesn't actually say what happened at Lyonnesse, only that nobody
could guess :P lol. Well that was a pointful poem.…read more

Page 9

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Wessex Heights
Loneliness, isolation, solace ­ but welcomed?
Lang
Spiritual undertone links to heaven and creation
Critics aren't his "comrade"s
Highland + lowland = state of mind device literal and metaphorical
Mixing of hard and soft sounds "dubious", "askance" etc
"Mindchains" ­ Blake influence apparently?
"phantoms" but comforting, not negative
"Phantoms" and "fellowed" both midsentence syntax linking the words'
meanings
Lots of "c" sounds in the 4th stanza
"chrysalis" ­ prevented from flying ­ held back
Repetition of "I cannot"
References to characters and people…read more

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Form
Narrative form
Tells a story
Structure
Iambic pentameter
Repetition in question
Stanzas irregular length (broken up like waterfall itself, pace increases
then calm etc) but regular rhyme scheme
Line length = more regular in some stanzas than others (due to
changing voice?)
The Going "a confused mess" but SO GOOD.…read more

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