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Keddie (1971): Streaming and labeling within the school
system
Found both pupils and knowledge can be labelled as high
or low status
Teachers believed they were treating all pupils the same
but when teaching an A stream class they gave abstract
theoretical, high status knowledge.
When teaching the `less able' student were given
descriptive, commonsense, low status knowledge
related to more everyday experience: withholding high
status knowledge from C streams because they mainly
consisted of working class pupils…read more

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Gillbourn And Youdell
(2001):Perception
Schools use teacher notion of `ability' to decide which
pupils are cable of getting 5A*-C GCSE
Working class black pupils are less likely to be
perceived as having ability placed in lower sets
and being entered for lower tier examination
This denies them the knowledge and opportunity needed
to get a good grade widens the class gap in
achievement…read more

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A self-fulfilling prophecy:
Something that alters actions directly or indirectly thus comes
true…read more

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3 Steps To The Self-fulfilling
prophecy
Step 1: The teacher labels the pupil (e.g. being very
smart and intelligent) and based on this label, makes
predictions about her/him (e.g. she/he will make an
outstanding academic progress.
Step 2: The teacher treats the pupil accordingly: acting
as if the prediction is already true (e.g. giving he or she
more attention)
Step 3: Pupil internalises the teachers expectations…read more

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Rosenthal + Jacobson: TEST!
They told the school that they had a new test specially designed to identity those
pupils who would `spurt' ahead. This was untrue, because the test was in fact
simply a standard IQ test. Importantly, however , the teachers believe what they had
been. Told
The researcher tested all the pupils, but the picked 20% of them purely at random
and told the school, again falsely, that the test had identified these children and
`spurter' on returning to the school a year later, they found that almost half (47%) of
those identified as `spurter' had indeed made significant progress. The effect was
greater on younger children.
Rosenthal and Jacobson suggests that the teachers believed about the pupils had
been influenced by the supposed test results. The teacher had then conveyed these
believes to the pupils through the was they interacted with them- for example
through the body langue and the amount of attention and encouragement they gave
them
This demonstrates the self-fulfilling prophecy…read more

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