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1. The tripartite definition of knowledge;
2. Gettier-type objections to the tripartite definition
3. Responses to Gettier, for example indefeasibility,
4. `Internalist' and `Externalist' theories of justification;
5. Belief: the dual-component view of belief (as
advanced by, for example, Hume)
6. Realist and instrumentalist notions of belief
7. Whether beliefs are appropriately caused, whether
they track the truth.
8. Behaviour and action; whether beliefs can be
voluntary.
Specification…read more

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Concerned with propositional knowledge (properties
of things, concerning empirical fact)
Components considered to be jointly sufficient and
individually necessary
Associated with Plato
Proposes that something is knowledge if it is
justified, true and believed by the asserter
E.G. I believe my top is red, the top looks red and is
labelled red, the top is in fact red- according to JTB,
this is knowledge
Justified True Belief…read more

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Gettier responds to JTB by demonstrating that together the
conditions are not sufficient
For example, Person A and Person B are waiting to take an
interview; Person A has less qualifications and does not know the
interviewer, whereas Person B does, hence Person A believes
Person B will get the job. Person A also notes that Person B as 12
coins in his pocket. From these observations, Person A concludes:
`the person who will get the job has twelve coins in their pocket'.
It turns out Person A manages to get the job, and on leaving the
interviewer he realises he also has 12 coins in his pocket. Thus, the
earlier statement was correct.
According to JTB it can be argued Person A had knowledge: it was
true, believed and justified. However it was also an accident and
the justification was based on evidence for Person B.
This demonstrates what even when all the conditions for JTB are
satisfied, it is still possible to lack knowledge
Gettier…read more

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Theory Example Problems
Responses (4th Conditions)
Reliabilism-a reliable For example, seeing a 1. Man if fallible, we can never have
process to justify your tennis match in person the perfect reliable method
belief should be used e.g.
sound cognitive reason,
something more direct
and immediate
Defeasibility- something If the world is flat is A 1. You can't always know when you'
is known as long as there and the world is round re wrong
is no evidence to the is B, A cannot be 2. We could never have knowledge
contrary- must be knowledge because of in the anticipation of facts to the
indefeasible the truth of B contrary
Conclusive reasons- For example, the belief 1. Makes knowledge rare
knowledge must be that the apple is red is 2. Undermines empirical knowledge
based on decisive based on the reasons
reasons. I.E. reasons A- that you can see the
M must be conclusive to apple and it looks red.
constitute belief N. If N is If the apple is not red,
false, it's reasons must these reasons would
be too. also be false.
Causal theory- there A bus arriving at the 1. Facts are too inert to cause
must be a causal stop when my watch belief, the reflect the world
relationship between the shows 2 o clock causes 2. You cannot have knowledge of
proposition and belief my belief that the bus the future
arrived at 2 o clock 3. Fails as a 4th condition as
instances don't directly cause the
greater belief but I can infer belief
from it.
Presence of relevant If a clock breaks at 1. Condition is too strong, unlikely to
falsehood- nothing can precisely the moment allow most things to be…read more

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Evidentalism
An internalist theory of justification
E.G. using sensory evidence, your memory or seeing
something as self evident
A type of internalism which proposes if you believe
something you can know directly what justifies that
belief.
Reliabilism
An externalist theory of justification
Denies internalism, proposes that sometimes you can
have justified belief without knowing what justifies it
The outside source justifies your belief.
Justification…read more

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