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Disinfectants
Used to kill microbes on non-living objects. They are highly
toxic.
They will reduce the number of microbes, but they may not
be all killed, and spores are likely to survive.
It is important to get the dilution right. Too little and not many
microbes will be killed, too much and it could be harmful to
the user and the environment.
Example:
Dettol ­ This can be used to clean
floors and work surfaces…read more

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Antiseptics
Are not as toxic as disinfectants and are used on living
tissue, such as on the skin to prevent infection of wounds.
They will often just prevent the growth of microbes, rather
than killing them all.
Example:
Savlon ­ This can be put on cuts or
grazes.…read more

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Sterilisation
Used to kill all microbes present in or on a non-living object.
It kills living tissue.
Sterilisation can be carried out in one of 3 ways, using:
Heat Kills all microbes, including bacteria and fungi, their
spores and any viruses present. Object is heated in
a autoclave for 30 mins at 116ºC or 2 mins at 132ºC.
Used to sterilse medical equipment e.g. scapels.
Radiation Gamma radiation can be used to kill microbes
present on food. However, some microbes
produce toxins that will not be destroyed
Like the treatment of drinking water by
Chemicals such as
chlorination. Sodium hypochlorite is used to
alcohol or chlorine release chlorine in enough concentration to
compounds kill all pathogenic microbes without affecting
the taste of the water.…read more

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